The shaped charge is a particularly effective tool applied in various industrial fields. In specific, it is required whenever holes or cuts in hard-to-work materials need to be generated, or in the case that technical crew cannot directly intervene for practical reasons or because of dangerous working environments such as demolitions and mining excavations. The core of this type of device is represented by a metallic liner which, following the detonation of the surrounding explosive, is rapidly deformed and projected against the target. The possibility to simulate the entire phenomenon using dedicated FEM solvers enables to get an insight into the physics of penetration and, thus, to earn an increase in design accuracy. The study presented in this paper is aimed at showing a comparison between the results gained by means of two consolidated commercial solvers, LS-DYNA and ANSYS Autodyn, detailing the peculiarities of the meaningful settings of the cases
Multiple redundancies in the current use of CAE analysis, the lack of priority criteria among physics and the concurrent run of disjointed models, lead to time and cost-consuming loops and reworks, late design changes and significant loss of data, increasing with number of revisions.
A stepwise approach was adopted to implement a collaborative simulation workflow. The analysis started with an assessment of CAE use, objectives and issues definition, gaps towards a desired state.
A multi-physics workflow was defined, spanning from requirements to design validation. The use of parameters was enhanced. Emerging practices were experimented on test-cases including thermo-mechanical, electromagnetic and fluid-dynamic phenomena. When mastered, the workflow is expected to scale rapidly and improve the way products are designed and developed.
Combining Adjoint Optimization and mesh morphing for CFD applications
Ubaldo Cella, Design Methods
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”
This paper aims to investigate the applicability of Adjoint optimization combined with mesh morphing to the industrial practice, by the integration of commonly used commercial simulation software.
Adjoint techniques are efficient optimization methods in terms of accuracy of results and short computational cost, but normally are limited to in-house simulation codes, that allow the calculation of partial derivatives of the observable quantities within the model simulation. Conversely, commercial software such as ANSYS Fluent make available derivatives in function of mesh points, and combined with a mesh morphing tool as RBF Morph, derivatives can be automatically computed in function of design parameters, such the amplifications of the RBF solutions that control the shape of the mesh.
Integrating these software in the optimization platform modeFRONTIER, it becomes possible to apply efficient gradient based optimization algorithms, with the big advantage of a full automatic process integration, and a very short number of design simulations to optimize the objective function. Methodology details and CFD application benchmarks will be illustrated.
Robust Morphing of CAD Geometry based on Simulation Results
CAE simulation is increasingly used to guide the generation of optimised CAD geometry. Multi-disciplinary analysis and automatic shape optimisation are two important examples, where simulation results and the deformed mesh from one analysis needs to be used as the basis for a second analysis, or, alternatively, as manufacturing geometry. In this paper we present a new geometry morphing technique that uses a displacement vector field to accurately morph nominal CAD model geometry to generate new high-quality reusable CAD models.
Our approach is to apply the displacement field directly to the original CAD geometry and to morph the geometry to match the deformed mesh. This technique offers significant advantages over a traditional least squares fit approach, producing more accurate and smoother geometry that preserves key topological features and form of the initial CAD geometry. The technique handles sparse data well, which can be particularly difficult for the frequently used traditional least squares fit approach. The morphing tool derives the deformation vectors from the difference between a deformed mesh and an undeformed mesh. The deformation vectors are then approximated by piecewise NURBS curves and surfaces which are combined with the original geometry to make the new morphed model geometry.
In the example of aerospace engine components, parts are manufactured in a ‘cold’ state but are designed for use in the ‘hot’ state in the environment of a running engine. Thermal shape changes can be modelled by a thermo-mechanical FEA. However, the resulting displaced mesh may not be appropriate for subsequent CFD simulations, necessitating a remeshing stage. The geometry morphing tool uses the displacement vectors from the thermo-mechanical FEA simulation to morph the original geometry and generate new high quality deformed CAD model suitable for remeshing as part of the CFD simulation of the ‘hot’ shape.
A second more empirical example looks at wind tunnel measurements of aircraft wing deflection. Incorporating aeroelastic deformations into a CFD simulation enables better validation of the CFD results against the wind tunnel measurements. The new morphing technique can operate on the sparse displacement fields derived from wind tunnel experiment and be applied without introducing irregularities on highly curved aircraft edges and surfaces.
A third example of the morphing technique is related to the modelling of real life wear and corrosion of in-service parts. A manufactured part will typically match the nominal CAD geometry to within acceptable tolerances, but during service parts may wear, corrode, or ablate. Simulation of worn parts is often used to assess their fitness for ongoing use. 3D scan data of the in-service part can be used to derive a deformation field that can be applied to the nominal CAD. The morphing tool can then generate a valid CAD representation of the in-service part that is suitable for engineering analysis.
This new morphing process, delivered as part of the CADfix solution, means that it is possible to accurately morph original CAD model geometry, generating smooth, well-defined curve and surface geometry that can be exported to downstream systems for further simulation, or back to CAD as a usable design model.
Practical Techniques for Design Optimization of Lattice Structures
The additive manufacturing (AM) industry continues to grow with new machines, faster processes and a large selection of materials. As design practitioners, we are rambling to unleash the full potential of AM. Lattice structures are very effective for lightweight structural panels, energy absorption devices, thermal insulation and porous implants. An overview of the currently available generation techniques for beam (i.e. diamond) and shell (i.e. gyroid) lattice structures will be presented.
This presentation will also demonstrate how to combine Sub-Divisional surface modeling, Topology Optimization and Lattice Structure generation tools to generate optimum designs. Examples of light weighting helicopter components using lattice structures and Additive Manufacturing will be presented. An example of weight reduction of an avionics heat exchanger without sacrificing any thermal performance will also be presented
Development of a software application for comparative manufacturing costs analyses
Francesco Paolo Micchetti, EnginSoft SpA
Aeronautical industries, with particular reference to those dealing with composite components production, are continuously seeking ways to optimize the cost of the final product and, as consequence, the cost of manufacturing processes, aiming at an increase of efficiency, needed due to the high costs of raw materials involved as well as to the introduction of new flyable and auxiliary materials.
In this scenario, raises the need of a software application able to make fast comparisons between different alternative manufacturing processes, in a flexible way with the aim to shorten times needed for feasibility analysis.
FSI optimization of industrial airplanes: the P180 Avanti EVO study
Corrado Groth, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Varvara Asouti, National Technical University of Athens
Kyriakos Giannakoglou, National Technical University of Athens
Ivan Spisso, CINECA
Claudio Arlandini, CINECA
Alessandro Sabellico, CNR
Massimo Bernaschi, CNR
Giorgio Travostino, Piaggio Aerospace
Riccardo Morasso, Piaggio Aerospace
Aniello Cozzolino, Piaggio Aerospace
We describe the procedure for the optimization of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) carried out for the P180 Avanti EVO vehicle, designed and manufactured by Piaggio Aerospace, performed in the framework of the Experiment n. 906 of the FORTISSIMO 2 research project. In particular, the effect of a set of modifications of the winglet shape, that were applied by means of a mesh morphing technique based on the use of radial basis functions, was numerically investigated adopting the mode superposition approach. The CFD analyses were carried out with both commercial (CFD++, ANSYS Fluent) and open-source (SU2) solvers employing the cross-platform FSI solver implemented in the RBF4AERO suite.
Thermal Management of the ALPIDE Space Module for Particle Tracking
Benedetto Di Ruzza, INFN - TIFPA
Roberto Iuppa, INFN - TIFPA
Christian Manea, INFN - TIFPA
Irina Rashevskaya, INFN - TIFPA
Ester Ricci, INFN - TIFPA
Bruno Morana, NanoInSight, Technical University of Delft
Silicon CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) sensors are developed for high-energy physics experiments. MAPS sensors detect charged particles and their use is spreading in the field of nuclear, radiation and medical physics.
MAPS sensors are very thin (50 um) to improve their energy resolution and are made by cost-effective commercial CMOS technology.
The ALPIDE MAPS sensor was developed at CERN for ALICE ITS Upgrade and has been recenty proposed for space applications.
Major design issues concern the thermal management of power produced by the array of chips in the ALPIDE module.
Therefore, by exploiting ANSYS thermo-structural simulations, we discuss how to deal with the thermal problem,
the module design and its integration with light-weight/high-thermal conductance composite Carbon Fiber
Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs). The ALPIDE space module will be built and integrated into a new Chinese Seismic Electromagnetic Satellite in the near future.
Material selection for lightweight design in aerospace and defence engineering workflow
Mariagrazia Vottari, Key to Metals AG
Besides the need for critical material property data for elastic, plastic and non-linear behaviour under various conditions and service temperatures, the defence and especially aerospace industry are characterized by requirements for lightweight design and optimization, as well as for a streamlined and documented design and engineering workflow.
The paper describes two components which in synergy provide the possibility to achieve these objectives. One is access to big material data, as a combination of public and companies’ private material properties databases, where the latter needs to organize internal material information, guidelines and experimental data, in a flexible, configurable and integrated way. The other are tools for comparing and analysing material properties and their ratios, which enable their accurate selection and optimization, most notably for weight, and in addition, combined with possibilities to analyse material replacement and reverse engineering.
Gearbox lubrication studies with meshless CFD methods
Developing new passive lubrication systems with reduced churning losses is one of the current challenges for the automotive industry. GKN Driveline produces gearbox systems for AWD vehicles, for hybrid vehicles and for electric cars. Tight customer timings and increasing customer requirements demand tools to predict the oil flow and distribution at wide range of operating conditions already at initial development stages. The complex, moving geometries inside a gearbox lead GKN Driveline to use meshless CFD methods, e.g. SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) and MPS (moving particle method) tools. These tools allow for rapid concept development and provide additional understanding of the oil flow, also in combination with experimental data.
A typical gearbox study will be presented, including presentation of typical work flow and discussion of gearbox CFD specific challenges.
Increasing power density of EV E-Motors via optimised cooling simulation methods
To develop electric vehicle e-machines with higher power densities and greater efficiency, heat transfer analysis throughout the motor needs to be performed early and often in the design cycle, to reach a solution that achieves adequate cooling capacity. Current methods for analysing heat transfer from the rotor and stator to the cooling fluid rely on either analytical methods which can be fast but provide low fidelity results, or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which is time and resource intensive and not particularly suitable as an early, iterative design tool. A new approach is presented in place of conventional CFD techniques for predicting oil flow and heat transfer in an oil-cooled e-machine. The method utilises moving particle simulation techniques to rapidly simulate the fluid motion in the motor and to quickly generate a heat transfer coefficient mapping of the 3D rotor and stator geometry. This paper describes the new approach taken to motor cooling simulation, how it was applied in the overall design process, including a comparison to alternative simulation methods. Conclusions are drawn on the new methods' viability to improve the e-machine design process, particularly assessing it's implementation as a rapid iterative design tool.
Designing and analysing the cooling of a medium speed engine piston using MPS method
Important constraint in designing a piston for a medium speed engine is maximum temperature of the piston. Too high piston temperature causes for example hot corrosion and decrease in material properties.
When piston is developed for a new engine it is usually required that several piston geometries are tested. In early stage of the development one must be convicted that piston temperatures do not exceed general design limits. To calculate the piston temperatures thermal boundary conditions must be known. Thermal load can be determined by approximate methods or more precise combustion simulation. Determining the cooling effect of oil inside piston cooling gallery is rather difficult. Oil splashing inside piston is free surface flow which is difficult flow scenario to be simulated.
Particleworks which utilizes MPS method offers an effective way to simulate oil flow and also to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. As a mesh-free method it enables quick evaluation of different designs without using long time to pre-processing. Also the actual simulation time is short compared to traditional methods. The use of MPS method and validation results are shown in the paper.
Oil path prediction and optimization for high speed transmissions with ParticleWorks
The oil flow prediction has always been a challenge for the designer. Being able to predict the path followed by the oil inside a transmission before the functional tests is not easy, especially for transmissions working in wide ranges of speed and temperature, but it would give great advantages. In particular, it would allow to shape properly the housings geometry, to define the most suitable oil level and to estimate whether the temperature can reach dangerous levels, minimizing the development costs and time and increasing the compliance with the customer requirements since the first prototypes. This is even truer when a transmission for high speeds is considered since the high speed introduces different behaviors of the oil and more attention on the oil quantity is required to minimize the power losses. A case study of a high speed transmission has been developed and simulated with ParticleWorks in order to predict the oil path at different speed levels and optimize the housing geometries to guarantee the lubrication of all the components with the lowest oil level.
HPE COXA: Particleworks application in Automotive Industry
Francesco Porta, HPE COXA
Mattia Violi, HPE COXA
Alexander Alessi, HPE COXA
CFD Simulation activities are every day more important in automotive industry from concept product definition to experimental validation. A Mesh-less software like Particleworks allows engineers to perform new analysis that with the standard CFD mesh based methods are not possible or even too difficult in terms of model definition and simulation time. Particleworks smart features allows a very easy model preprocessing from CAD import, to motion definition and solver setup. Another key point is the possibility to run the simulation on GPU with a considerable solution time reduction. This paper resumes HPE COXA experience using Particleworks for Transmission and Gearbox Oil Splashing, Oil Tank Sloshing and Piston Oil Jet simulation.
Recent Progress of Particle Method MPS in Industrial Application
In recent years, attempts have been made to apply computational methods based on the particle method to engineering problems that are difficult to treat with conventional mesh-based CFD software and remarkable achievements have been made. There some major advantages for the particle method. For example, it is easy to treat flow with complicated free surface and moving boundary conditions, e.g., gears, pistons, stirring blades and so on. Computational methods such as SPH and MPS have been proposed as a particle method, but the former has been developed as a method to model compressible fluid, whereas the latter has been developed for incompressible fluid. Problems with incompressible flow are very common in the design and development of industrial products, and the MPS particle method is widely applied to the simulation for such problems including oil lubrication in a gearbox, wading of vehicle through water or mud, tank sloshing, etc. In such actual product development, a user interface and an analysis condition setting function for efficiently carrying out analysis work such as ease of use and easier setting of analysis conditions are required. In this presentation, practical latest capabilities implemented in CFD software Particleworks based on MPS particle method will be introduced.
Efficient CAE workflows in hybrid HPC systems for the Automotive Industry
Over the years, automotive enterprises have introduced CAE applications as part of their product development. Since 2002, Gompute has been working to speed up the CAE workflows by constructing internal cloud systems or by extra capacity in a secure cloud environment. In this presentation, Gompute will show different success stories of OEMs and Automakers using in-house, HPC cloud or hybrid HPC systems
Multi disciplinary optimization of engine suspension stiffness
Elena Salino, FCA
Gabriella Lombardi, FCA
The engine suspension in a vehicle has the primary task to filter the car body from engine-generated vibrations, such as reciprocating mass and gas pressure forces. For idle vibrations, this is mainly achieved by tuning the engine mounts stiffness in order to set the system natural frequencies far enough from the frequencies of unbalanced orders. During car ride, though, the road induced excitations cause unwanted engine shaking, that may results in perceived discomfort for the passengers. The tuning requirements for the two cases (idle and ride engine shaking) often lead towards opposite choices. A multidisciplinary optimization on engine mount stiffness has been carried on modeFRONTIER® and ADAMS/Car® in order to identify the Pareto frontier for optimizing the tuning on 3 cylinder engine, considering idle vibrations and on-road engine shaking. A preliminary DoE has been used to train a set of response surfaces (RSM), on which a genetic algorithm has been employed to find the optimum.
Fatigue Analysis using FEMFAT inside ANSYS Workbench
Roman Pschera, Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co KG
Peter Vymlatil, DesingTec
FEMFAT is a finite element solution for fatigue analysis. Results can be achieved from time and frequency domain for high- and low cycle fatigue. Developments from well-known institutes and guidelines are taken into account and modified to fit the assessment method in FEMFAT. Additionally it’s based on in-house developments resulting from project works with global customers and measurements and researches from Magna Powertrain Engineering Center St. Valentin. The analysis method is a mixture from local stress concept, structural stress concept and using influence parameters to consider results from high end simulation techniques. Manufacturing processes like sand castings, die castings, metal forming, stamping and complex material models from laminates or short fiber reinforced plastics are taking into account for higher accuracy in fatigue results. Mean stress correction and plasticity in frequency domain are unique capabilities of FEMFAT.
The fatigue analysis of components with FEMFAT requires the provision of structural and stress data in dedicated formats. These data and their formats are basically predefined by the user's FE pre- and postprocessor and are generated manually. In special cases, an automated workflow is set up, which means that optimization with automatic fatigue analysis can also be carried out.
An extension to the ANSYS Workbench has been developed to simplify the fatigue analysis in terms of data management, integration of optimization software and interpretation of results.
On the one hand the lecture demonstrates the improved possibilities, which result from the integration of FEMFAT into the ANSYS Workbench, on the other hand special aspects in the development of this extension are discussed.
Only a few years ago it seemed impossible to perform CAE simulations in the cloud: there were barely any high-performance computing servers available in the cloud; data transfer between the cloud and on-premise resources was often too slow; cloud security was a concern; software vendors were not prepared for the cloud and licensing was not cloud-ready; setting up your own compute cluster in the cloud was time-consuming and needed a lot of system expertise; and often companies' compliance regulations were (and are) still not up to date.
But most of these barriers have been removed, over time, mainly by novel technology like software containers and cloud services platforms. In our talk we will analyze the process of moving CAE applications to the cloud and look at how roadblocks can be removed, and we will present a few real engineering examples of how Automotive OEMs and their suppliers today are performing CAE simulations on remote computing resources.
Moving automotive thermal tests from real world roads to laboratory facilities, 1d simulation supporting
Emiliano Di Tullio, FCA
Cristian Leucci, FCA
Nicola Cauda, FCA
In order to reduce new vehicle time to market automotive thermal system engineers rely on hot or cold cells for validation testing. These laboratory facilities provide steady environmental conditions and allow different vehicle, engine, transmission set up year long, but usually do not take into account reduced air density running Alpine grades or high ground, non-European highways. Using heritage references both vehicle performances and 1d CFD automotive thermohydraulic simulation models are modified to take into account elevation effects on driving patterns and engine heat rejection, enabling improved tools to set up laboratory automotive thermal tests and support results interpretation.
Flame-wall interaction modelling for pre-chamber combustion in lean burn gas engines
Nick Tiney, Ricardo Software UK
Evgeniy Shapiro, Ricardo Software
M. Kotzagianni, ETH Zürich
P. Kyrtatos, ETH Zürich
K. Boulouchos, ETH Zürich
Lean burn combustion systems present a viable route to emissions reductions. Scavenged pre-chamber ignition (PCI) systems aim to address this challenge by creating favourable ignition conditions close to stoichiometry in the spark region. The main lean charge ignition is then delivered by flame jets propagating through the nozzles connecting the pre-chamber to the cylinder. However when using pre-chambers in light-duty application several problems need to be overcome compared to conventional ignition systems.
The interaction of the flame with the walls of the pre‐chamber is an important issue affecting operation of the PCI combustion system. The flame may quench near to the wall due to heat losses. This is more prominent in PCIs designed for light‐duty vehicles as the characteristic size of PCIs can be comparable with the flame quenching distance.
Near wall quenching also affects the quality of the fuel mixture within the pre‐chamber due to the accumulation of unburned mixture in crevices near the spark housing and the gas valve outlet. This issue is crucial when looking at vehicle emissions
Finally, the thermal quenching effect can affect the main pre‐chamber operation. If the flame can propagate through the pre‐chamber nozzles without quenching then the mixture in the cylinder is ignited by the jet flame front. But if the flame is quenched within the nozzles, the mixture in the cylinder is ignited by hot radicals injected which create distributed combustion microkernels downstream of the nozzles. Modelling of these phenomena is essential to the successful design of PCIs.
To simulate these effects a novel phenomenological quenching model has been has been developed by Ricardo and implemented into the VECTIS cfd product to work with G‐equation combustion model. This paper illustrates the principles and applications of the developed model. Comparisons with academic benchmarks are presented indicating favourable performance across a range of pressures and mixture stoichiometry. The model is then applied to the analysis of a novel pre-chamber ignition system and the results also compared with measurement data. The results demonstrating good accuracy of the developed model using both cut-cartesian style grid.
Influence of Contact Linearization on Brake NvH Behavior
"Numerical methods procedures for brake squeal analysis are widely accepted in industry. The approach of complex eigenvalue analysis is successfully used to predict the appearance of squeal noise. Using simulations in an early design stage reduces time to market, saves costs and improves the physical behaviour of the brake system. To understand the system characteristics properly, efficient parameter variations may be performed using sampling methods. The approach of complex eigenvalue analysis consists of three major analysis steps. First step is the nonlinear contact analysis, followed by the linear real Eigenvalue and complex Eigenvalue analysis. Between the first step and the subsequent steps, the simulation model must be changed from a nonlinear model to a linear model. The main task of this change is to linearize the behaviour of the contact areas. In many processes for the linearization default settings are used without taking into account the individual conditions of the different contact areas. However, for small changes in the linearization settings considerable changes in NVH results are expected. To understand the sensitivity of NVH results on the linearization settings, the settings must be influenceable. The following options are necessary to analyse the linearization: • Individual settings for each contact area, • Independent linearization settings for contact normal and contact tangential direction, • Dependency on frictional state (slipping or sticking), • Threshold value for contact pressure or gap size to decide about coupling in contact normal direction, and • Threshold value for contact shear or slip distance to decide about coupling in contact tangential direction. This complete set of options for linearization is available in the high performance solver PERMAS. The presentation will show the influence of individual contact linearization settings for different contact areas of brake systems. With extended knowledge about the influence of the settings, it is possible to take the different possible behaviour of contact areas much better into account.
A model for automotive tank evaporative emission prediction
Luca Romagnuolo, Università di Napoli Federico II
Pino Giliberti, FCA
Adolfo Sentatore, Università di Napoli Federico II
Assunta Andreozzi, Università di Napoli Federico II
Emma Frosina, Università di Napoli Federico II
Control of gasoline evaporative emission is a leading trend in automotive development. Recent updates of international standards and the spread of hybrid vehicles pose additional treads.
A theoretical, numerical and experimental work has been set up to build and validate a predictive model of vapor emission in static conditions, taking into account temperature, pressure, fuel properties, tank geometric parameters and filling level. It leads to a system of 14 differential equations, implemented in Matlab®. Test data for research and validation have been gathered in a sealed chamber (mini-SHED), using production and prototype items. Early results are promising. Future evolutions are toward full validation and include fuel dynamic (filling, sloshing, pump operation).
The work is part of a joint effort among FCA, Università di Napoli Federico II and Ohio State University.
Free-form and parametric optimization of powertrain components using CFD: from the intake to the exhaust line
Mike Saroch, Friendship Systems
Stefano Fontanesi, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Mattia Brenner, Friendship Systems
Free-form deformation and parametric CAD modification are applied in order to optimize different components of internal combustion engines. Caeses by Friendship Systems and Star-CCM+ by Siemens PLM are coupled together: three different applications are reported and they consist of an inlet pipe to the compressor, an exhaust manifold and a coolant citcuit. The aim is to give an overview of the several aspects pertaining an optimization pathway: the different targets that would be achieved, the constraints that have to be fullfilled and the approaches that could be applied in terms of design modification shedding a light on pros and cons of each of them.
Matteo Maria Rostagno, Fiat Research Center
Izabela Katarzyna Kowarska, FCA
Francesco Lovuolo, FCA
The thermal comfort in the standard vehicles is reached passing through a series of thermal transient conditions where jet air ejected by the common dashboard outlets produce high thermal dissymmetry, always perceived as annoying.
The ways to achieve the passengers comfort are particularly difficult and even the modes of maintaining comfort might be bad in many cases.
The integration into the cabin of systems that improve the thermal comfort, able to reduce the fluid-dynamic resistances of the HVAC system and simplify its geometry at the same time, allows to reach in advance both the thermal comfort itself and to decrease the cabin thermal transient. These solutions give the possibility to set forward the thermal stationary system condition of the A/C system with a consequent energy demand reduction and fuel saving too.
In this activity an enhanced geometry of an air outlet with a double function (jet and diffuse air) has been developed coupling the CFD numerical simulations with multi-objective optimization techniques. The experimental tests on rapid prototyping components had as results the validation of both the air outlet geometry and the numerical methodology accuracy.
Application of WAVE-RT and rCube2 on running engine to reduce emissions and eliminate physical sensors
Bohumil Hnilicka, Ricardo Prague Technical Technical Center
Jiri Navratil, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Martin Horacek, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Adam Kouba, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Michal Vinklar, Ricardo Software - Prague Technical Center
Nowadays there is a massive increase in powertrain complexity with rapid push to electrification of modern vehicles. This is a complex task associated with Real World Driving Emissions connected with energy management and optimization of fuel economy.
Virtual engineering as a key area of growth especially in the automotive sector to enable faster to market product development, aggressive reductions in the use of hardware and allowing comprehensive vehicle simulation environment to support development and launch of xEV products.
Ricardo is developing “virtual calibration” methodology to support OEMs with the implementation of best practice and fast repeatable process methodology. Ricardo Software has created simulation environment for full performance evaluation using Ricardo’s own commercially available software tools including WAVE RT. WAVE RT is 1D CFD crank angle resolved and physical based engine model, which captures detailed geometry and transient behavior of the engine operation, capable running in real time or faster. WAVE RT is therefore very suitable for any MiL, SiL and HiL applications of a complex vehicle model.
For a HiL simulation map based ECUs are typically used to control engine operation. However, map based ECUs has certain limitations and require lots of sensor within the vehicle. Replacing the map based engine model by a WAVE RT model allows to simulate those values that are not possible to measure e.g. trapped air mass in each cylinder. Knowing this value, it allows us to calculate a precise fueling requirement to achieve a target air/fuel ratio.
Two applications using the WAVE RT engine model embedded in the Ricardo rapid prototyping control unit rCube2 controlling the real diesel engine on dynamometer will be presented.
1. Smoke reduction emissions by using computed trapped mass in cylinder by WAVE RT physical model
2. Eliminating Physical Sensors and replacing sensed value by computed value using WAVE RT physical model
Simulation results communication through a VR Collaboration Environment: a car's headlamp analysis case
Jaroslav Haša, Varroc Lighting Systems
Dimitris Katramados, BETA CAE Systems
Athanasios Fassas, BETA CAE Systems
A main task of an automotive engineer is to make decisions early during the development phase, even when the final CAD design is not available to the CAE engineers. Simulation plays an important role in this as many analyses and design iterations can be evaluated quickly and accurately, without having to wait for the physical prototype to be built and tested in a lab. Simulation produces interesting results, but on its own, it is not always enough, as the suggested changes must be communicated to also non-engineering teams.The evolution of hardware and VR headsets has allowed for the development of tools that give engineers the capability to interact with 3D models in an immersive environment. Engineers from different sites around the globe can join in a virtual environment to collaborate in real-time having the full-scale model in front of them. This presentation showcases the use of BETA’s software suite for the analysis of a car’s headlamp and its inspection in a VR environment.
Preprocess Automation of ISO 7141 13° Impact Simulation for Light Alloy Casted Wheels
Ali Kara, CMS Jant ve Mak. San. A.S.
Cast aluminum light alloy wheels are commonly used in automotive industry for decades due to their good mechanical properties such as ductility, energy absorption and also due to their low density serves weight reduction objectives. Wheels in general are safety parts, due to this function, it is subjected to a lot of proofing tests such as dynamic bending fatigue test, ISO 7141 13° impact test, rigidity test, natural and forced vibrations measurements etc. Some of these tests are related to drive comfort and others to safety. 13° Impact test is one of the safety proofing tests for wheel and the nature of impact test is a dynamic problem in reality. It is possible to model it as a static problem but for high level correlation, it should be modelled as transient and explicit model. When the FEA model is transient-explicit, mesh quality and computation time become important. Therefore this work has been done to automate setup steps and reduce time for simulation. In addition possibility of mistakes from employees is eliminated and risk of erroneous simulation is reduced. Simulia’s Abaqus Simulation Software is used for 13° impact simulation and Python programming language is used for writing script that automates set-up.
Comparison of two multiphase procedures on a commercial vehicle in rain conditions
Marco Maganzi, Università di Pisa
Giovanni Lombardi, Università di Pisa
Giacomo de Angeli, Maserati S.p.A.
In automotive design, the study of the water thin layer over a car due to rain is becoming increasingly important: the challenge is to obtain a way to describe the behavior of the water over a vehicle in rainy conditions and its interactions with wipers and drainage systems, to determine potential failures of the vehicle design. In this paper two similar numeric procedures have been realized with the software STAR CCM+® to analyze the dynamic of water thin layer starting from the impingement of the rain on the car surface and taking into account even the motion of the wipers over the windshield. Moreover, the water that flows through the drainage systems is monitored to figure out which is the liquid interaction with components near them. In order to outline each phase of the water, many multiphase models are used. These methodologies have been applied on a commercial vehicle model and the results have been examined and compared to each other. The analysis shows a better description of the reality for one of them, leading to the possibility of using it as a design tool in the automotive industry.
Accelerated Digital Approach for Development of Grommet
Keshav Prabhu, Mercedes Benz Research & Developement India
John James, Aricatt
Closure grommet serves the purpose of aesthetic and protection of wiring harness. It is a flexible rubber component. Due to complexities involved in grommet tolerances and flexible natures it requires various iterations for the design development. This paper describes accelerated approach to explore the design possibilities of grommet by carrying out sensitivity analysis and optimization study. Numerical simulations are carried out by using ABAQUS and design sensitivity study, stochastic and optimization studies are carried out by using Hyperstudy. This approach was useful in reducing the lead time of design cycle.
Impact of Weld Residual Stresses on the Creep Life of High-Temperature Pressure Components
Pressure components exposed to homologous temperatures above 0.3-0.4 are prone to develop severe creep damage over their operating lifetime and this is directly tied to their operating stress range. Weld residual stresses are likely to develop during fabrication if PWHT are not, or badly, performed and these can sum up to the operating stress field shortening the time-to-rupture. It is common opinion that these additional stresses would quickly relax over time when the equipment is operated in the creep regime, hence not contributing significantly to their overall lifetime. In this paper this assumption was evaluated for an actual case study: a branch connection weld on the main header of a HRSG assembly manufactured with an ASTM A335 P22 low-alloy and operated at 10.4 MPa and 528 °C in the creep range. The welding process was simulated via thermo-mechanical FEA including the transient thermal and a fully plastic material analyses. The simulation was carried out using the Ansys Mechanical commercial software, implementing isotropic hardening materials and element birth-and-death techniques to completely account for the welding bead deposition. A custom user-subroutine was then implemented in order to custom simulate the material behaviour in the creep regime and the analysis extended up to 200000 hours evaluating the stress field during fabrication/operation and the creep damage according to API 579-1 Sec. 10.
Optimization of material properties workflow and selection in CAE
One of the key Industry 4.0 design principles is the ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and communicate with each other via the Internet of Things. Necessary data and access to information therefore represent two central layers of the Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0) and material data are one of the most relevant aspects of that space. This paper will present a concept of integration of material data flow through public and companies’ private material properties databases, both within an organization and through a supply chain, with material modelling and CAE simulation positioned at the beginning of the workflow. The ability of big material data to help the selection and simulation process is presented for different starting points such as the analysis of one or a detailed comparison of a small group of preselected materials, to a “blank canvas” approach which starts from a whole global space of 500.000 diversified materials of all types. Moreover, an insight into use cases of material selection, optimization and global sourcing decisions in different parts of the supply and value chain of automotive OEMs and Tier suppliers will be provided. The use cases include lightweight design and optimization, material data for various CAE simulations such as body in white, forging and sheet metal forming. In addition, an approach is proposed for integrating material data into CAE and the general engineering workflow within organizations, through a combination of public and companies’ private material properties databases, as well as externally by means of the newest VDA standard for material data exchange in the automotive industry, thus paving a way for an Industry 4.0 level of connection throughout the entire value chain.
A waste heat recovery system by storing energy on phase change material in combi boilers
Mehmet Akif Ezan, Dokuz Eylul University
Zafer Turhan, ASML, Eindhoven
In the current work, a novel approach is developed to recover the waste heat from the flue gas of a natural gas combi boiler. The extracted heat from the stack gas is aimed to transfer to domestic hot water to maintain a comfortable and efficient combi usage. The suggested heat recovery concept has two main steps. In the first step, the flue gas passes through the heat exchanger which involves the phase change material (PCM). Hot flue gasses melts the PCM so that the thermal energy is stored in the PCM via latent heat. In the second step, on the other hand, the stored energy within the PCM is extracted through the domestic water line to preheat the cold water. Consequently, it is aimed to develop an efficient and environmentally friendly heating system by recovering the waste heat from the combi. A numerical model, which consists of a 3D heat exchanger with PCM, is developed in ANSYS-FLUENT solver to investigate the various working and design considerations. The discharge period of the current system is crucial as the required time to produce the domestic hot water corresponds the quality of the combi boiler. The influence of volumetric flow rate of water and the total mass of the PCM are numerically obtained.
Microstructure-fluid interaction in 3D--printed silicone for laryngeal medical implants
Nihal Engin Vrana, Company Protip Medical SaS
Julien Barthes, Protip Medical SaS
Alexandra Zühlke, Aalto Univeristy Foundation
There is a growing trend of use of 3D printed implants of different materials. Common biomechanical optimization of implants usually is limited to macroscopic features leaving interface phenomena will less attention, but these phenomena are mainly responsible for the clinical success. The difficulty of management of interface phenomena is in highly multi-scale nature of different interlinked processes which in most cases do not have validated parameters and data. In this work computer simulation of 3D printed medical silicone subjected to oscillating deformation is performed to assess local microfluidics within then porous topology structure of the material, intended to be used in laryngeal implants. Such porous material when subjected to physiologically relevant deformations (~1 Hz, 20-50 µm amplitude) generates structure–fluid interaction, affecting fluid permeability and following nutrients transport. The model was made with micro-CT image segmentation, and mechanical properties of silicone were experimentally determined. The outputs of the modeling and their translation to implants applications are discussed.
Multiscale and optimization analysis of lattice structure produced via additive manufacturing
Additive manufacturing products have non homogeneous structure characterized by three types of scale which are macro, meso and micro. Macro scale structure is made by many meso scale inhomogeneity that is called lattice structure. The merit of lattice structure is not only weight saving but also controllability of material property. Macroscopic material behavior is strongly depended on the shape of lattice structure namely. In this presentation, example of optimization and multiscale analysis between macro scale and meso scale lattice structure will be shown. Macroscopic an-isotropic material constants of lattice structure are predicted by CMAS. CMAS is a add-on tool for ANSYS. It is developed by CYBERNET SYSTEMS Co. Ltd and released from EnginSoft SPA at Europe.
Simulation of thermo-mechanical effects produced by a highly focused radiation applied on a material: developing of a multi-purpose APDL script for the physical characterization
Valerio Pettinacci, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Rome
David Alesini, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), National Laboratory of Frascati
Massimo Ciambrella, Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
Daniele Cortis, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Rome
Marco Marongiu, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Rome
Andrea Mostacci, Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
Alessandro Variola, National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), National Laboratory of Frascati
Matter-radiation interaction represents a relevant aspect in several industrial applications. Accurate interaction modelling through correct radiation parameters is essential to predict the physical behaviour of used materials, such as fatigue lifetime. In this paper, we present a procedure to investigate thermo-mechanical effects that an extremely focused radiation produced hitting a material target spot. The work is based on a multi-purpose script realized with ANSYS® APDL code. Thanks to the APDL features, it was possible to simulate the temperature and the strain of a target due to specific physical parameters and spatial and temporal distributions of radiation, extending the results to a high number of thermal cycles to investigate the fatigue lifetime too. The script has been developed during the theoretical investigation of the interaction between optical transition radiation (OTR) screens and electron beams of the ELI-NP Gamma Beam Source facility. In this case study, the simulated electron beam consists in trains of 32 electron bunches 250 pC each, separated by 16 ns and distributed along a 0.5 μs RF pulse with a repetition rate of 100 Hz.
Materials and simulation: from CAE to ICME, a 2040 vision
James Goddin, Granta Design
Stephen Warde, Granta Design
Simulation is increasingly embedded in product design and development processes. Already a standard engineering activity across many industries, the Digital Twin is forcing companies to consider how models of products connect to one another throughout the lifecycle, and also to data and decisions relating to the physical product. What about materials? How confident are simulation analysts in the materials data that they use as input? How is this data linked to the other varied definitions of the material throughout an enterprise (e.g., for CAD, aesthetics, or compliance)? And what are the risks if it is not? We will review what leading engineering enterprises are doing to ensure traceability and connectivity for materials data, and thus robust, consistent simulation.
These same principles can be applied to simulation and design of the materials themselves, through approaches such as Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME). Indeed, with technologies such as Additive Manufacturing and Composites, modeling of the material and of the product are increasingly merging. The industrial vision for the development of computational materials science over the next 20 years sees significant advances in integrated multiscale modelling and simulation of materials and systems. This requires: the robust and traceable capture of simulation data, pedigree, and metadata; integration of simulation data alongside materials test data, enabling validation and calibration; the visualization of complex data, application of artificial intelligence, and quantification of uncertainties; and secure sharing of intellectual property within and between organisations. We will reflect on these requirements and how they might be met at an organizational and industry level.
Integrated simulation system for soft materials, J-OCTA
Soft materials (Soft matter), e.g.plastics, rubber, film and so on, has a complex multi-scale structure and the computer simulation can support understanding the mechanism of physical properties. It is necessary to use the appropriate simulation method for each scale, from the atomistic to the micrometer scale. “J-OCTA”, the integrated simulation system, has some important technologies for the researchers and engineers in materials design field. Basic back ground and case studies in industry are introduced.
ADAS systems Robustness analysis and optimization: a way to assess the function’s performance
Alberto Clarich, ESTECO
ADAS (Advanced Driving Assistance Systems ) and AD (Autonomous Driving) systems are being widely introduced by all automotive companies to reduce the number of casualties / accidents. Having to meet strict requirements for a wide range of traffic scenarios, disturbances, and faults, the costs for testing and evaluation of an automotive control system are increasing and still today it is unclear to know when the ADAS system can be considered validated and how this can be assessed.
It is mandatory to develop accurate numerical simulations of ADAS control systems, integrated with sensors and actuators, vehicle dynamics, inter-vehicle behavior and microscopic traffic environment. In this paper, VI-Grade modeFRONTIER software are integrated for the reliability analysis of an ADAS system, identifying which are the most relevant scenarios to be taken into account allowing OEMs and suppliers to conduct a full function validation and assessment.
Hybrid Twin: A new paradigm for the industry and society4.0 - Enriching technology and humans
Jean Louis Duval, ESI Group
Emmanuelle Abisset, ESI Chair Professor at Centrale Nantes
In the previous industrial revolution, virtual twins (emulating a physical system) were major protagonists. However, usually numerical models (virtual twins) are static, i.e. they are not expected to accommodate or assimilate data. Model Order Reduction techniques opened new possibilities for more efficient simulations. In particular the so-called PGD, consists of calculating offline a parametric solution containing the solution of all possible scenarios. The so-called digital twins allowed for assimilating data collected from sensors with the main aim of identifying parameters involved in the model, anticipating actions. Despite an initial jubilant period, unexpected difficulties appeared immediately. Namely, in practice significant deviations between the predicted and observed responses were noticed. For circumventing these difficulties Hybrid TwinTM embraces three main ingredients: (i) a simulation core able to solve mathematical problems in real-time; (ii) advanced strategies able to proceed with data-assimilation, data-curation, data-driven modelling and (iii) a control mechanism to adapt the model online.
Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Recovery of Mechanical Energy from fluids for the feeding of an IoT node for monitoring of diesel engine exhaust gases
Vincenzo Mastronardi, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Francesco Madaro, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Francesco Guido, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Massimo De Vittorio, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Alessandro Cinciripini, EnginSoft SpA
A system for harvesting of kinetic energy from accessible sources such as body movements, low winds and gas flows, for the power supply of miniaturized daily life apparatus is a very promising research topic for
energetically autonomous Internet of Thing (IoT) devices such as sensors, wireless transmitter, etc. For example, devices based on Flexible polymeric films could be very sensitive to mechanical deformations generated by fluid streams and turbulences, even at very low intensity. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that piezoelectricity on flexible polymers is achievable by depositing a thin film of piezoelectric AlN, sandwiched between metal electrodes with columnar grains coherent through the polycrystalline layers, on Kapton substrates. Finite Element Methods are very useful to optimize the interactions between fluid and piezoelectric flags. Here we show a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) design of a piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) -based flexible flag, whose deformation due to flow perturbations in an exhaust pipeline, would supply energy to a chemical sensor, for diesel engine-based exhaust by-product, and radio transmitter modulus to car electronic control.
Development of a FSI Methodology to Simulate a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester System from Engine Exhaust Gases
Energy harvesting is a very promising technology consisting in recovering energy from easily accessible sources to supply low-consuming devices. The interest in these devices is increasing rapidly during the last years due to the wide range of their applications: sensors for wearable systems, low-consumption actuators, wireless transmitters and other IoT devices which need to be energetically autonomous to exploit their capabilities.
This work is focused on an energy harvester systems able to recover mechanical energy from internal combustion engine exhaust gases. This can be achieved using a thin layer of piezoelectric AlN (Aluminum Nitride), supported by a polymeric substrate immersed in the gas, oscillating in presence of Von Karman vortexes; so that its deformation can generate electric power that can be stored inside a circuit.
Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations assume a relevant role in this project to design optimized configurations for different system layouts. Since the flapping flag composed by the AlN and a polymeric substrate is affected by large deflections, due to its low stiffness, numerical stability is a critical point to be investigated in the methodology development.
In order to simulate accurately the vortex shedding phenomenon induced by a bluff body, the choice of the turbulence model is crucial as well. The investigation is performed not only among the common 2-equations models, but also among more complex and innovative ones.
Passive upper limb support exoskeleton: from the technical specifications to the market
Comau, world leader of advanced automation solutions, in collaboration with ÖSSUR, an Icelandic leading non-invasive orthopedic company, and IUVO, a spin-off company of the Italian BioRobotics Institute specialized in wearable technologies, was asked to contribute in the developing of a new exoskeleton. The aim of this new wearable technology is to improve work quality and reduce fatigue of operators that perform overhead tasks for lasting time.
Comau started from the definition of the product technical specifications, such as the weight of the device and the assistance needed, to the development of several prototypes, which fully replicate the dynamic movements of the shoulder (were able to create a device that replicate the dynamic movements of the shoulder).
Given the short time to market, Comau widely adopt additive manufacturing component, validated, first by FEA simulations and then by tests in field.
The device was subject of a series of clinical tests by a third party entity, to evaluate the biomechanical benefits, as well as to guarantee its safety..
This process brought in June to the launch of COMAU MATE (Muscular Aiding Tech Exoskeleton exoskeleton), a tangible example of human-machine collaboration.
The medical digital twin assisted by Reduced Order Models and Mesh Morphing
Emiliano Costa, RINA Consulting SpA
Stefano Porziani, University of Rome Tor Vergata
Simona Celi, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio
Katia Capellini, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio
Michel Rochette, ANSYS, Inc.
Valery Morgenthaler, ANSYS, Inc.
Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Rome Tor Vergata
In silico analysis tools in the bio-medical field are nowadays moving from the research context to the patient specific treatment and prevention one. Hemo-dynamics is receiving a great attention and an accurate CFD modelling can be adopted to produce a digital medical twin capable to reliably predict pathology evolution and the effect of surgical corrections. The availability of in silico digital twins based on CAE simulations is one of the key enablers; parametric shape of vessels and reduced order models (ROM) are a promising solution. The ROM approach requires HPC to be built but can be consumed almost in real time and also outside from the standard CAE tools. In this paper the concept is demonstrated exploiting the new ROM Builder available in ANSYS 19.1. We developed a pipeline for the aortic aneurysm to study the effect of the bulge shape progression on the flow field. First a patient-specific geometry is reconstructed, then a CFD model is created with a bulge shape parameterised through an RBF mesh morphing technique and, finally, a reduced order model (ROM) is suitably built up carrying our CFD simulations. Examples of fast evaluations achieved off-line by consuming ROM results are provided.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare * Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro
Virtual Reality Application in a Nuclear Accelerator Facility
Maurizio Montis, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare * Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro
A nuclear plant, for energy or for nuclear physics, is a complex facility where high level security is mandatory, both for machines and people. But sometimes the status of danger is not correctly felt, inducing workers to misinterpret situations and, as consequence, not act in the best way. At the same time problems related to area accessibility can occur during normal machine operations, limiting actions related to local maintenance and environment supervision. It would be suitable to have the opportunity to perform these tasks in a independently way from environment limitations and machine operations. In order to overcome these limits, we try to apply Virtual Technology to the nuclear physics context. As consequence, this new tool has given us the chance to reinterpret concepts like training or maintenance planning. In this paper the main proof of concept implemented will be described and additional information related to different VR technology usages will be exposed.
Conceptual Design tools for Innovation Engineering
Andreas Vlahinos, Advanced Engineering Solutions
This presentation will describe and demonstrate a practical set of computer aided innovation (CAI) tools. These tools assist engineers and manufacturers by increasing their innovation skills. Implementation of these tools generates innovative and disruptive solutions to complex problems. Tools that use the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to generate innovative ideas for the most difficult engineering and manufacturing challenges will be presented. A Mechanism Synthesis tool that generates, in seconds, several conceptual mechanisms that follow a given path while its supports remain within a given domain will be presented. Interactive Multi-Physics Topology Optimization tools that generate the optimum topology / shape of a component for a given structural, thermal or fluid requirement will be presented. Tools that generate Programmable Materials (meta-materials with predefined properties) will also be discussed.
IoT stack to bridge the gap between the Operation technologies and the ICT of the SME’s
SME shopfloors have always been seen as weakly coupled to the companies' ICT systems due to technical and historical reasons. Machineries and work centers are still not fully connected to the rest of the organization, work orders are very often managed on paper, data are collected by hand by the operators and later transmitted to the production control and logistics. Information flows out of the shopfloor manually and often too late to prevent a production mismanagement. Real time monitoring and control of machineries and production may be now achieved using Industrial IoT platforms compliant with the INDUSTRY 4.0 paradigm. Machines’ efficiency can be constantly monitored to prevent shifting and downtimes, while the real time tracing of the production orders allows the organization to be constantly up-to-date with the shipping availability of the products. The two ways integration between the shopfloor and the the rest of the ICT systems such as ERP, MES, CMMS, BI relies on the digital interfaces able to instantly communicate among the two worlds. The presentation offers some examples on how the whole IIoT stack should be able to communicate with the rest of the enterprise’s processes.
Wearable electronics poses many challenges for the antenna design engineer. When designing wearable consumer electronics in particular, rapidly evolving performance requirements, new usage scenarios and regulatory constraints make the ability to accurately and efficiently evaluate and consider different design options critical in being competitive. In this presentation, some of the challenges facing antenna designers in the design of a new smartwatch product will be shown. The presentation will explore some design examples and discuss the design and analysis approaches in relation to the regulatory as well as electromagnetic and mechanical performance requirements for a typical commercial smartwatch.
Functional Verification of Complex Engineering Designs using System-Level Modeling
Andy Ko, Phoenix Integration
As engineered products become increasingly complex, manufacturers are forced to rethink their design processes, and there has been a growing adoption of the systems design & development process. This approach provides a framework whereby complex multi-disciplinary systems can be broken down into subsystems to a level of granularity that allows various design teams to focus on their specific contexts then carefully integrate them and verify the outcomes against requirements throughout the process.
In order to reduce the cost and disruption caused by late-stage design changes, there is a lot of attention being paid to processes and tools to help identify and address possible design issues as early in the process as possible. In particular there has been an emergence of Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tools to manage the vast amount of interrelated design requirements across disciplines, and Model-based Design (MBD) tools to allow engineers to develop conceptual designs of the system to address those requirements.
This presentation will show how MBSE tools manage the design requirements of complex systems in a tightly integrated fashion. This allows for efficient design verification and validation against requirements, throughout the development process. A detailed case-study, using MagicDraw Teamwork Cloud, MapleMBSE and MapleSim, integrated on the ModelCenter platform from Phoenix Integration, will demonstrate how a change in the specified operating conditions for an electric vehicle can be simulated to reveal the impact on the battery design requirements very early in the design process.
1D and 3D coupling: the simulation approach and industrial applications
Simulation tools of 1D networks are easy to use and have fast solving times, however, they don’t always contain all the features needed in system simulations. 3D CFD or Mechanical tools become necessary when components have complex 3D geometry which cannot be characterised in one dimension or in systems where three dimensional flow results are required. However, simulating an entire system in 3D is often computationally expensive: for this reason an hybrid 1D-3D simulation approach is a good compromise. In this contest a multi-physics integration is analysed and applied to different industrial sectors.
Lowering the Risk of Transit Electrification with Informed, Model-Based Strategies
Paul Goossens, Maplesoft
In response to mounting concerns about climate change, many municipalities are working to increase the use of public transit while reducing the carbon emissions generated by their fleets. For many transit authorities, the way forward is creating a smarter fleet electrification strategy that incorporates more electric vehicles while keeping costs low. However, moving to an electric bus system can present serious challenges.
In order to ensure an optimized implementation of electrified bus fleets, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) worked with Maplesoft to develop a model-based approach to simulate the electrification needs of a public transit authority. By combining virtual prototyping techniques, electrification expertise, and data about actual buses and bus routes, MapleSim Fleet Forward analyzes electric bus behavior under a variety of conditions that allow transit authorities to identify electrification issues before they occur, and make informed decisions.
This presentation will introduce you to a comprehensive set of tools to help transit authorities determine the best electrification strategy for their city. This will include case studies illustrating how a model-based approach that helps transit authorities get environmentally friendly, run an efficient electric fleet, lower risks and ensure rapid return on investment.
A Flywheel cooling design review by means of Flownex
Michele Raciti, Ansaldo Energia
The increasingly diffusion of renewable energy has led to a greater demand of synchronous compensator in order to supply the power electrical grid stability. In this context, to increase electrical machines inertia, they can be coupled to a flywheel that must be appropriately cooled because of the ventilation losses due to the big dimensions and peripheral speed. This work points out the utility of software as Flownex that, as in this case, has allowed to implement and to analyze the internal ventilation circuit of a flywheel. Thanks to it, and further calculation adopting Ansys Fluent, it has been possible to exclude some inefficient solutions basing on flywheel internal cooling system.
Machine-level Virtual Commissioning for On-Time, On-Budget Innovation
Paul Goossens, Maplesoft
Chad Schmitke, Maplesoft
To keep pace with today’s competition, production-machine companies require a delicate balance of innovation and an ability to get their products to market, on time and on budget. However, as modern designs require increasingly complex features and faster delivery schedules, even the best engineers can miss important details.
Developing better design techniques will look different for every company, but many will relate to the challenges of bringing physical hardware together with their control programs. The commissioning process is often a very risky stage in any product’s development. Between reworking designs, over-engineering parts, or an unpredictable time to market, the costs and damage to reputation can be significant. For these reasons, many are adopting a model-based approach to create system-level virtual prototypes of their machines, incorporating mechanisms, actuators, and controllers, and carry out virtual commissioning of the machine very early in the process.
As a technique, virtual commissioning stands to greatly reduce the risks inherent in many new designs, and provides the basis for embedded real-time digital twins that can be used to develop market-leading features in your products. At Maplesoft, we’ve worked with leaders in the automation market to develop strategies that match each customer’s particular design techniques. In this presentation, Maplesoft will show the process of virtual commissioning, highlighting the work they are doing with B&R Automation and Rockwell Automation, and how you can adopt these powerful techniques for your design processes, and beyond.
ANSYS Twin Builder: the new era of pervasive simulation
Twin Builder is the new Ansys tool to build, validate and deploy complete systems simulations and Digital Twins for Predictive Maintenance. It allows to build system easily and quickly combining the power of a multidomain systems modeler with extensive specific libraries, 3D physics solvers and reduced-order model (ROM) capabilities. In this talk we illustrate how to extract ROM from an Ansys Workbench analysis and how to validate it. After that, we export the ROM file generated as Functional Mock-up Unit (FMU) in the Twin Builder environment and import in a multi-domain system to evaluate its performances on the whole system.
Embedded, mechatronic and networked systems require a cross-domain system overview to holistic optimization. General-purpose simulation tools often come to their limits, because required modeling languages or problem-oriented solution algorithms are not available. Typical models are generated and simulated in specific departments using domain-specific simulation tools, so that a simple and lossless porting to another simulation tool is not possible. The co-simulation represents a modern and flexible approach, but has challenges in the numerical integration of the subsystems.
As part of this presentation, the challenges of co-simulation and modular simulation are identified and discussed. In contrast, opportunities and approaches for dealing with these problems and efficient solutions are presented. Finally, these algorithms achieve a maximal performance for continuous co-simulation.
The algorithms and application examples presented were implemented and implemented in model. Connect. The application examples demonstrate the relevance of efficient coupling algorithms in co-simulation and prove the performance of Model. Connect as an industrial ""best-in-Class"" co-simulation platform.
Moving boundary problem in System-level thermal analysis
Recently, the system-level simulation approach is applied to enhance their concept design process. It allows to analyze and optimize the system-wise design parameters. In terms of the thermal analysis, the advantage of using the approach is that the reasonable fidelity models can be simulated efficiently, even in real-time. On the other hand, one of major challenges is how we can express transient physical behavior as a dynamical simulation model, especially about the moving boundary problem. In this presentation, we introduce the modeling method to realize the moving boundary condition with the coarse-discretized model in the system-level simulation for thermal analysis.
In this talk we present some examples of multi-domain system models that show how, using an advanced system modeling software like MapleSim, it is possible to obtain useful information that can be used to reduce product development risk and costs, and to enable product innovation. Multi-domain systems are characterized by the fact that they couple together components belonging to different engineering domains. As an example, if we consider an electro-hydraulic system we have the following domains: mechanical (both rotational and translational) for the description of the mechanical part of the machine; electrical for the description of the motors, hydraulics for the fluid interaction and signal for the control part. Modeling such domains together in the same modeling environment software can significantly improve the product development process of such machines.
Scilab & SimulationX for preliminary design of electric motor
With today’s trend for electric car, every car maker must go back to specifications and preliminary design to replace basic powertrain functions. In order to make this electric car-paradigm a reality, suppliers have therefore to provide car manufacturers with optimal design taking into account new design tradeoffs such as autonomy and power to be delivered.
In this context, ESI has been working with both manufacturers and suppliers of the automotive domain on optimizing the design of electric motors (and associated batteries). Considering that such design requires many geometric changes (number of poles rotor/stator, number of coil’s turns, number of phases, …), Finite Element Analysis (FEA) prove to be inappropriate for large design space exploration on a dynamic model (each simulation taking several hours).
Following clients’ needs, ESI solutions were twofold. First, providing simulation solution for multi-physics static finite element modeling and dynamic system modeling. Second, integrate the solution in Scilab through the Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) and giving access to the results via a tailored application.
Model reduction and optimization techniques can also be of help in order to take into account the changes in the geometry and the design parameters. Future development will be about interfacing additional external tools & libraries (Octave, Python, …) with Scilab to serve as an integration hub and deployment platform for both academics & industries.
In the industrial machinery industry, there is no room for flaws in the design process. This is even more critical in an engineer-to-order context as the following one. The company designs customized painting booths and ovens for the automotive industry. These kinds of machineries are complex systems composed of several interlinked components and the relative design process involves different team of engineers using different spreadsheets. So, the challenge was to enable an integrated design process supported by customized simulation tools. Standard software packages don’t take into account the specific company’s workflow nor relevant problem details. Therefore, a customized web application, running dedicated 1D lumped and thermo-fluid dynamics models, has been developed to solve the reliability vs simplification trade-off. The results: the different engineers teams are coordinated and can evaluate different configurations in terms of costs and performances in a faster and visual way.
Virtual ECUs and virtual validation of automotive control functions
The complexity of software and systems in vehicles increases at an extremely fast pace. It is commonly agreed that new methodology approaches to the test and validation of complex systems are required in future in order to deal with this task in a comprehensive and economic way. Fortunately, recent technology advances are opening new perspectives to dealing with this task. Accurate functional integration tests, previously only possible to perform with real prototypes, can now be performed in simulation on low-cost and highly available PCs. This has been made possible by advances from: (a) physical simulation: availability of reality-close vehicle simulation models, and (b) new technology for software integration: virtualization of the ECU functions on PC.
The availability of accurate vehicle simulation on cheap PCs makes possible to use massive simulation for investigating and assessing the behavior of complex dynamic systems. Thousands of simulations running in parallel on PCs can be performed at virtually no cost – compared with the costs of human testers, hardware-in-the-loop platforms and real prototypes. This trends are likely to cause a disruptive change in the way organisations will address the development and test of embedded systems in the near future. We mention three of the expected changes: (i) increasing role of simulation and virtual integration in the organization, (ii) standards for model exchange (FMI), including exchange of virtual ECUs and models among OEMs and suppliers and (iii) a shift away from the naïve practice and understanding of the requirements as “test scripts” - towards a formal representation of requirements as “system invariants”. These necessary and able to support a thorough virtual validation covering a large space of situations and system configurations.
Our presentation will explain in more detail the techniques available for building and integrating virtual ECUs in vehicle simulations. We will also review results of application in several development projects.
The evaluation of internal loads is a key aspect when designing a vane pump since they greatly affect the wear phenomenon. In this work, the load evaluation is performed by a two-step approach. At first, the fluid dynamics is analysed by means of a mono-dimensional GT-suite model representing the oil pump, its accessories and the oil circuit trough the engine. Then, the computed oil pressures are utilized as hydraulic loads in a multibody model developed in ADAMS in order to evaluate the internal components dynamics in terms of mutual forces and relative displacements. Said actions represent the driving force for wear volume estimation. Finally, the dynamics of the internal components is experimentally investigated by movies taken with an high speed camera on a running pump where the front cover is replaced by a clear cover made out a transparent material. This allowed to check the numeric model reliability and provided indications to its further development.
EMAK produces machines for gardening, little agriculture and civil construction. It develops its 2 stroke engines for hand held applications like chainsaw, brush-cutter, blower, etc.
One of the main cause of part failure is fatigue from vibration, so engineers need a methodology to better understand what happens in durability/field test. The aim of this work is to explain the strategy developed to estimate life of components in a professional brush-cutter using ANSYS Workbench as an alternative of most popular commercial software. It is a challenging work because it needs interdisciplinary knowledge (signal processing, fatigue on plastic material, vibration mechanics, loss factor estimation, FEA, IT, etc.). The adopted strategy consists essentially of tree steps:
1) Study of the excitation through multibody The model involves not only the crankcase, but also unbalanced rotor, centrifugal clutch, gear transmission and cutting tool. Particular attention is dedicated to the spark advanced management, in order to accurately reproduce the pressure inside the cylinder. It is clearly the main excitation of the system, which varies with the working speed. The model returns the internal reaction forces at bearing supports, which are the loads to be used for any structural and fatigue assessment. 2) Frequency Response Function analysis and validation The stresses over parts are extracted from a linearized FE model in frequency domain, which requires deep validation to become reliable. Calibration data has been measured through experimental modal analysis, performed on both single parts and sub-groups. Particular attention has been spent for the evaluation of the frequency-dependent loss factor of the structure, which is responsible of the magnification factor in case of resonance phenomena. The FE model has been tuned by adjusting contact setup, in order to make the numerical FRF compatible with the experimental one. 3) Fatigue analysis - This task is performed by processing stress data previusly generated by FE models. In order to make the fatigue life prediction reliable, effects of both thermal pre-loads and effective cyclic loads are taken into account. By making massive use of ANSYS APDL commands it has been possible to first build the stress history on all nodes and then evaluate the fatigue loading through the rain-flow counting method. Do to unavailability of experimental fatigue data for the used materials, the stress vs cycles curves (S-N curves) are taken from literature. Fatigue material properties are then lowered to take into account roughness, overall size and surface finishing. Calculation of damage and life has been performed on all nodes and then made available for graphical representation in ANSYS.
The proposed calculation procedure has been optimized to run in a multicore workstation equipped with common hardware. This requested a relevant work to simplify and rationalize the models. The methodology is general and can be replicated for any mechanism undergoing cyclic loads.
Development of a Digital twin for an enhanced performance of an HIL simulator
Hermes Giberti, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Francesco La Mura, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica
Ivan Raineri, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica
The representation of the real world through a digital description or, in other words, a mathematical model implementation in a simulator can be termed as Digital Twin. This can be used to monitor or control a related physical subject and compare it to the virtual digital twin. This paper presents a digital twin of an HIL system based on a 6dof parallel kinematic manipulator. The control structure, the actuation system and the friction behaviour are developed through the use of Matlab SIMULINK whilst the mechanical behaviour of the system via a multibody approach. By means of the co-simulation, these work together and allow one to test the HIL simulation to analyse the feasibility, check the control algorithm, verify the performance attainable and asses the safety features. This work describes the HIL application and the digital twin developed purposes set out above.
System Level Simulation as Key Factor in the Development of Washing Machines
Giovanni Colombera, Electrolux Italia SpA
Fabiano Maggio, EnginSoft SpA
The CAE has always played a crucial role in the development of washing groups at Electrolux Fabric Care Department. Simulation is indeed one of the best approaches to better address the experiments and identify issues before any prototype exists. This leads to an overall reduction of new products development costs. At the same time, simulation provides means to improve our products, giving access to digital techniques of optimization. Such an advanced approach to design, keeps Electrolux a step forward its main competitors.
As washing machines have become complex mechatronics systems, there is a growing demand of multi-physics digital prototypes. The key word to achieve higher performances, while reducing the costs, is to predict upfront the best integration between electronics, controls, inertial properties, structural response, thermal response and fluids behavior. System integration is a paradigm at Electrolux Design department, which we call Model Based Design. The long term goal is to be able to design and test all aspects of a whole washing machine in a virtual environment. Recent improvements in Multi-Body-Dynamics Simulation, Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Control Simulation, confirm that the direction taken by Electrolux designers is the correct one to maintain the lead in the market of Appliances.
This full presentation is not available
Lovato Electric Spa
Multibody simulation of a switch disconnector
Iacopo Guaiatelli, Lovato electric SpA
Switch disconnectors are electrical devices suitable for various applications such as electrical equipment, machinery and power distribution to perform quick-make and quick-break operations in low voltage circuits. The object of this study is the multibody analysis of a manual operated switch disconnector working in the range from 160 to 315 A.
The typical physical principle used by these mechanisms deals with the accumulation of elastic potential energy and its rapid release. The potential energy is usually stored by the compression of two springs. When the commutation occurs the springs release the accumulated energy in order to accelerate the shaft and make the commutation independent from the operator in terms of force and speed.
The dynamics of the switch disconnector, including actuator and three poles, has been simulated using the multibody software RecurDyn. The analysis led the engineers to understand some dynamic aspects important to improve the electric performances. In order to properly represent the large deformation and the contacts in which the springs where involved, the RecurDyn Full Flex approach was used to get the most accurate and reliable results.
System Analysis using Multi-body Simulation Technology
Originally and traditionally system-level simulation has been implemented based on complex connection between rigid bodies and kinematic constraints like joints, contacts and force elements. However, recently since it is strongly requested to analyze and solve more complicated engineering problems by simulation technology, multi-body simulation (MBS) is also trying to add other simulation domains into its territory for higher-fidelity analysis and prediction. In this presentation, the cutting-edge capability of MBS will be introduced and shown by RecurDyn features with a few interesting industry cases. And, the future direction of MBS will be also suggested.
Developing the Digital Twin for Gearboxes – capturing all relevant physical and multi-physical phenomena
For a digital twin to work it needs to give accurate information about the performance and condition of the system under study. This paper focuses on gearboxes and considers what it takes to deliver this.
It turns out that a simple torque-stress-fatigue consideration is not sufficient. Gearboxes under load deflect, leading to misaligned contacts in the gears and bearings with stresses far higher than in the un-misaligned state. Misalignment is affected by thermal distribution, which is in itself affected by detailed tribological behaviour at the rolling/sliding surfaces in gears and bearings.
The resulting picture is complex, not just with multiple physical phenomena but with the intricate interaction of these multiple physics. This paper will identify the significance of these interactions with reference to studies validating the models against test data, and present a format for how the digital twin for the gearbox can be realistically applied.
At AIES Ltd, we have both analytical (SBA and SALBA) and numerical (RHD) tribology solvers that can be applied to steadily and dynamically loaded bearings and other tribological components including pistons and piston rings. The numerical solutions allow the effects of hole, slots and non-circular geometry due to manufacturing, elastic deformation (EHD) and thermal effects (TEHD).
Ways in which the solvers can be run include, running the speed through the operating range to simulate bearing stability, generation of oil film stiffness and damping coefficients and solving multiple connected oil films simultaneously (e.g. for Full Floating Bearings).
The programs thus have multi-fidelity, multi-physics and multi-body dynamics capability. Examples are given in the paper including comparison of methods, application to internal combustion engines (bearings and pistons) and turbo-machinery. A cavitation damage parameter is also calculated over the bearing cycle and shows good agreement with observed damage.
Strategies for Reliable 3D CFD Simulation of Positive Displacement Machines
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have promising potential to become an important part in the development process of positive displacement (PD) machines. CFD delivers deep insights into the flow and thermodynamic behavior of PD machines. However, the numerical simulation of such machines is more complex compared to dynamic pumps like turbines or fans. The fluid transport in size-changing chambers with very small clearances between the rotors, and between rotors and casing, demands complex meshes that change with each time step. Additionally, the losses due to leakage flows and the heat transfer to the rotors and the casing need high-quality meshes so that automatic remeshing is almost impossible.
The presentation includes an overview of the strategies to do numerical simulation of positive displacement machines like lobe pumps, screw compressors, scroll compressors or vane pumps. The discretization of the fluid volume is the main challenge to get reliable simulation results. The time changing volume shape has to be represented by a numerical mesh including all gaps. The methods to model the chamber volumes like overlapping meshes, remeshing or mesh deformation are presented and their advantages and disadvantages will be summarized.
The presentation also shows the typical workflow for 3D CFD of PD machines and some simulation results. The computational grids for the time dependent fluid volume are generated by the grid generator TwinMesh™ developed by CFX Berlin Software GmbH. This meshing software generates and optimizes pure hexahedral grids for each time step prior to the actual simulation and calculates the mesh quality to assure high quality numerical results. The transient numerical simulations are performed by ANSYS CFX, which is able to handle complex flow characteristics. A couple of examples of simulation results and comparison to experimental results will be presented as well.
Finally, there will be an outlook to additional numerical approaches like heat transfer from the fluid to rotors and casing (CHT) and structural simulation of the casing by using thermal and pressure loads from the fluid simulation (FSI).
Current trends in the large-displacement motorcycle market entail a strong competition among the main brands, in which the product performance has to be optimized thus requiring the adoption of improved processes and tools early in the design stage. Depending on the market segment, the concept of performance might be applied to different product features, from engine power to vehicle handling, from sound quality attributes to ride comfort. Virtual design, and CAE simulation in particular, is widely used in the product development process to meet the established performance targets within strict time and cost requirements.
As an example, the development of a multi-body model of the brand’s cruiser bike, the Ducati XDiavel, is presented here, which aims at defining an optimal design setup concerning ride comfort, through a quantitative understanding of the factors which impact this particular performance attribute in specific maneuvers. The process involves the adoption of ESTECO’s modeFRONTIER optimization tool, along with the selected multi-body dynamics simulation software, at various stages. First, a parameter identification procedure is carried out based on experimental results, ending up with a baseline simulation model which is capable of reproducing some identified ride comfort metrics. Then, sensitivity analyses are performed in order to understand which are the most important design parameters, and how those interact to define a specific dynamic response. Finally, optimal setups based on extensive simulation campaigns are defined and validated through experimental testing.
This full presentation is not available
Hitachi Rail Italy
Crashworthiness design according to the European Standard EN15227: description of the numerical/experimental methodology applied to the new MLA platform project
A modern train must not only fulfil the traditional static load and fatigue requirements; it shall also fulfil passive safety necessities. These crashworthiness requirements must be considered in the design of the coach structural part of the vehicle. Sophisticated crashworthiness analyses are today a regular step in the engineering process of developing a new train.
Vehicle crash is a dynamic phenomenon featuring a complex interaction between structural and inertial behaviour. It is generally recognised that in a typical collision the end structure experiences first the impact and undergoes eventually large deformation in the impact region.
The passengers only later experience the effect of the impact. The first phenomenon is normally referred to as primary collision and the second type of events, related to the passengers, is normally referred to as secondary collision.
Due to the geometrical complexities of rail vehicle structures and to the complicated material behaviour involved in large deformation, finite element computer programs with elastoplastic dynamic analysis capabilities have to be used (LS-Dyna).
This presentation describes the methodology which has been adopted for the analysis and design of rail vehicles structural crashworthiness: the project has led to develop new products through new technologies using innovative approaches and materials. The main goal of the project was to make the vehicle compliant with current Crashworthiness European Standard (EN15227) through a structural strength re-design made even more complex by the presence of aesthetical and mechanical interface restraints linked to the “Platform” concept. In particular for this project, the designed sacrificial elements placed in the impact region are innovative as they are made in a special composite material. This product combines qualities of lightness, efficiency and low costs.
Evaluating Optical Density by smoke propagation simulation in a railway coach
Marco Lazzarotti, ISE Ingegneria dei Sistemi Elettronici S.r.l.
Sandro Gori, EnginSoft Spa
Marco Spagnolo, EnginSoft Spa
Fire and smoke propagation numerical simulations are currently spreading in a great variety of Fire Protection Engineering fields. Requirements are getting even stricter in all the involved areas, and in the transportation sector the attention to increasingly performing vehicles and systems, mainly in terms of passenger’s safety, is higher than ever.
This paper describes an activity undertaken in the above scenario, applying state-of-the-art methods and numerical simulations, and performed using the code FDS – Fire Dynamics Simulator by US-NIST. The scope of the activity was to use a virtual smoke machine, calibrated according to the applicable standard for fire protection on rolling stock (European standard EN50553-Annex C) and positioned in a computer model of an actual railway coach, in order to evaluate optical density in specific (planes and) points corresponding with the position of smoke detectors on board. The simulation enabled to assess critical parameters of the installation, and to allow validation of the proposed system layout, well in advance of the production of the real vehicle, that is due to enter service in year 2019.
Structural Optimization: Evolution, Concepts and Applications
Brian C. Watson, Vanderplaats Research & Development, Inc.
In recent years, topology optimization has been receiving considerably large attention due to the popularization of additive manufacturing and its adoption by major CAD and CAE players. But, topology optimization is not new. It has been discussed and developed in academic circles by nearly 3 decades and it has been implemented in codes like GENESIS for two decades. On the other hand, topology optimization is not the only type of optimization that can be used, other types such as sizing and shape optimization has been known or discussed for nearly six decades. In this paper we will discuss some important events that have make structural optimization practical in commercial codes. We will discuss the implementation in the GENESIS software and is application as a standalone code. We will also discuss the use of GENESIS in other environments like ANSYS Workbench. Applications that illustrate the evolution of structural optimization will be included.
Efficient Freeform Optimization for Stress Reduction on Complex Assemblies
Markus Dahlbokum, FPT Motorenforschung AG
Numerical methods for complex assemblies like engines are widely accepted in industry. Corresponding optimization methods are available since many years. It is well known in the industry that usage of optimization in an early design stage reduces time to market, saves costs and improves the physical behaviour and robustness of the mechanical system. Nevertheless, optimization methods only were used for single parts and simple mechanical boundary condition. Complex geometry, complex load history or complexity in form of assemblies with many parts which interact by contact with each other prevented industrial usage of automatic optimization processes. All three complexities together led to unacceptable run and preparation time consumption for this kind of optimization. So, current processes for this class of analysis consist of manual geometry update and many time consuming manual loops to improve the behaviour of the structure.
Acceptance in Industry is only possible by time reduction and automation in all phases of the process. The main issues are addressed in parts which create together a complete solution.
First part is run time of the solver. State of the art of simulation with PERMAS comprises fast run times for complex assemblies with contact. E.g. simulations with load histories with many steps, which reproduce assembly procedure and alternating loadings in combination with fine meshes in the size up to 100 million degree of freedom (dof) run overnight.
Second part of acceleration is optimization technology. Instead of optimization software that restarts the solver many times from outside, it is much more efficient to integrate optimization into the solver. It is possible to reuse data in the loops and to define smaller loops. PERMAS combines solver and optimizer technology in one software. The software takes all advantages of this integration.
Third time consuming part is the definition of optimization. Freeform optimization is defined by simple surface sets, which are easy to define. No additional direction must be defined, because the direction is defined by the normal direction of the surface at any position. Many additional input items are detected automatically based on the mesh. In addition, a tool with wizard technology supports the definition by a step by step process.
The success of the new process for freeform optimization of complex assemblies will be shown by two industrial examples. First example is a cylinder head of an engine assembly. Second example is a tractor chassis where the engine is part of the main structure. For both structure the stress is reduced significantly.
Massive Parameter Reduction for faster Fluid-dynamic Optimization of Shapes
Carsten Fütterer, Friendship Systems AG
Jörg Palluch, Friendship Systems AG
The performance and economic success of many products directly depend on their fluid-dynamic behavior. The shape of turbochargers, ship hulls, engine components etc. decides about energy efficiency, vibration excitation, noise emission, flow homogeneity, pressure drop and many more key aspects. Consequently, the optimization of complex shapes by means of simulation has been pursued with ever increasing intensity over the last ten to twenty years. To this end, high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, e.g. to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE), are employed. While the accuracy of the solvers is steadily improved, in particular for the ranking of design variants, even the sound increase of computational resources cannot compensate the fact that CFD simulations are often costly and time-consuming to run. Hence, in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) a lot of effort is being put into providing sophisticated parametric models that would define shapes with as few parameters as possible. This is because in design and, ultimately, in optimization the effort of changing geometry and reevaluating performance scales easily with the square of the degrees-of-freedom, i.e., the number of free variables with which to describe and control the design task.
The paper will therefore present high-fidelity parametric models for variable geometry in CAE, focusing on fair shapes that are already defined with very few parameters. Various examples will be given for illustration, namely the compressor stage of a turbocharger, the ship hull for a RoPAX ferry for the Mediterranean and the inlet duct for an engine. A method will be discussed how to massively reduce parameter spaces further. The method, known as Karhunen–Loève Expansion (KLE) as introduced by Diez et al. (2012) and then further developed for the optimization of maritime assets as discussed, for instance, in Pellegrini et al. (2017), has been implemented within the Process Integration and Design Optimization (PIDO) system CAESES®, supporting the analysis of parametric models, massive parameter reduction and, furthermore, the utilization of the principle components for subsequent optimization.
KLE mathematically belongs to the family of principal component analysis. A large set of shapes, which have to be topologically identical, is generated by means of a Design-of-Experiment (DoE). These statistically uncorrelated shapes are then analyzed for their Eigenvalues and -vectors, defining a new (transformed) design space. The coordinate directions of this so-called KLE space are interpreted as “super-parameters” since, typically, a considerably lower number of KLE parameters already retain much of the variability of the original shapes. The super-parameters may be ordered according to their importance for capturing the original shapes. Interestingly, 95% of the variability is already attained with very few of the most influential super-parameters, allowing the design team to work within a massively reduced design space. This then decreases the number of necessary simulations for performance analysis very tangibly, i.e., by up to one order of magnitude.
A non-trivial part of applying the KLE method is that, for sophisticated Computer Aided Design (CAD) models on the basis of BReps (Boundary Representation), a back-transformation has to be undertaken from the KLE space to the original CAD space before a suitable variant can actually be generated and pre-processed for any successive CFD simulation. The paper will explain, too, on how this can be achieved.
The examples to be presented will show how the optimization effort can be reduced, speeding up the entire process, while still achieving similar or even better optimization results.
Parts of the work presented stem from the German research & development project GAMMA (Effiziente GAsmotoren für MaritiMe Anwendungen der nächsten Generation – Efficient GAs engines for MaritiMe Applications of the next generation), headed by MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH with the Technical University Darmstadt, Numeca Ingenieurbüro and FRIENDSHIP SYSTEMS as partners. The project is funded by the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the orders of the German Bundestag.
Fluid dynamics optimization of a shaft-less rim-driven thruster
Daniele Malgieri, MICAD Srl
The shaft-less rim-driven thruster (RDT) can provide many advantages over traditional ship propulsion plants including enhanced onboard comfort and propulsion efficiency, locations arrangement flexible installation, light weight and compact size. For this reason, during last years it become an attractive ship propulsion device in the marine industry.
Within the project P. E. R. Na. (Propulsore elettrico reversibile per la Nautica) financed by the FvG region with Uni-TS, Uni-UD and MW.FEP as partners, a hydrodynamic optimisation (DoE) was developed with the aim of determining the feasibility of this type of thrusters for propulsion of sailing boats.
The electric motor will have the possibility of generating electricity by extracting energy from the boat's motion when it sails. For this reason, from a hydrodynamic point of view, the best compromise has been reached between these two operation modes.
A completely parametric model of the rotor (blades and rim) has been created with Grasshopper inside the Rhinoceros 3D environment, a selection of variables has been included in the multi-objectives optimization process carried out through modeFRONTIER (ESTECO) by measuring the parameters chosen by performing CFD simulations with the Star-CCM+ solver (SIEMENS).
In marine industry, CAE tools are widely used for the design and optimization of all the hydro and aerodynamics components of a yacht, mainly related to pure naval architecture. Less studies are done for on-board HVAC systems: in general, air condition devices are placed where available space is present without any consideration of the real effective functionality of the devices. In most of the cases, the air quality distribution is not optimal with extensive discomfort zones. By using a CFD approach it is possible to study and optimize the air inflow conditions working on the design of the plenum comparing the solutions from usual design to custom optimized design. The investigation shows the effective necessity of the CAE tools in HVAC design to improve the thermal comfort on-board of yachts. In most of the cases, the standard designs of a plenum are not sufficient to achieve the required level of comfort and a proper study is needed to design a custom one more efficient.
Ventilation Inception for Kite Foil Surface Piercing Struts
Giorgio Provinciali, Giorgio Provinciali Srls
Surface piercing hydrofoils can be subjected to natural ventilation. This phenomenon consists of air entering in a specified region where the pressure reaches a sub-atmospheric value on an immersed strut; the difference in pressure creates a local cavity, air filled, that is open to the external environment. Ventilation is a key factor to consider when designing a new kite foil daggerboard because in case of occurence, the performances of the hydrofoil are drastically reduced. By using specific CFD tools, the ventilation inception is investigated for a new designed surface piercing foil. Different sections are compared and specific post process data collected and compared to visualize the possible ventilation inception.
LincoSim Web App: preliminary usage statistics and validation results
Francesco Salvadore, CINECA
Claudio Arlandini, CINECA
In this work, we present the preliminary usage statistics and validation results of the LincoSim web application. LincoSim is an innovative web application dedicated to the design process of planing hulls by means of CFD runs and is developed within the EU funded project LINCOLN. The web user interface has been opened to partner usage in April 2018 and supports now three different groups of users that have performed hundreds of CFD runs (0 DoF and 1 DoF) performing a preliminary set of solver validations. The preliminary results in terms of usability and robustness are positive with about 800 completed 0-1DoF simulations and more than100 geometries uploaded on the dev instance and about 100 completed 0-1 DoF simulations and more than 20 geometries uploaded on the production instance. The set of validation test also is encouraging for the 1DoF solver basic setup with an average error of about 15% for the drag evaluation. A set of tailored sea-trial tests and physical towing tank experimental campaign over two different vessels are planned to be performed by the end of 2018 and they will be used to further improve the 2DoF solver accuracy.
Guidelines for Transmission Simulation Using Both Traditional FVM and new SPH Approaches
Virtual development is becoming an essential part in the development phase of new components/system and, within this process, AVL is constantly looking for new and innovative solutions to be applied in the automotive field. In this paper, we are going to focus the attention on gearboxes application, a sub-system in which is very important to reach high efficiency trying to reduce the oil related power losses, maintaining the system lubricated and thermally stable. Within this paper we are going to compare the well-known Finite Volume Approach (FVM) and the new method based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), considering pro & cons of both methods. Different examples with increasing geometric complexity has been considered, starting from a single stage gearbox up to a complete gearbox. In gearbox applications, the required outputs include: torque losses, oil flow rate through supply channels, wetted surfaces and oil distribution, including the heat transfer between the oil and the housing to maintain the thermal stability of the system under control. Beside these required outputs, the complexity in setting up this kind of simulation with standard CFD tool should be considered, mainly related to both the geometry preparation and the generation of the volume mesh, considering moving components with very small gaps, or even the contacts between surfaces. Depending on the complexity of the geometry and the desired physics, CFD or SPH method can be used alternatively to approach this application, each one with its pros and cons.
The main differences between these two methods are:
SPH: the time required for the preprocessing (considering the geometry preparation and the simulation Set-Up) is short, considering also very complex geometries and motions. Physics is strongly simplified, because only the fluid phase is considered. Time to solution is strongly reduced if compared with standard CFD approaches. Concerning the postprocessing, is easy to be Set-Up and can also be done a posteriori. Due to the simplified physics, a limited amount of physical quantities, are available for the post-processing.
CFD: the time required for the preparation is higher due to the surface preparation and meshing processes. More complex phenomena can be considered, such as foam, fluid film and so on. The postprocessing as to be set up a priori, and more quantities are available thanks to the more complex physics involved.
Learning from Results: Data Based Project based on CFD Simulations
The democratization of CFD simulations and the availability of more performant DoE algorithms help in the creation of huge database of ship forms and performance.
With the post-processing of the resultant data, it is possible to understand better the influence of the geometry on the resistance, helping engineers in the configuration of good geometries also in early design stages.
In this paper, the influence of the geometrical coefficients on the resistance evaluated by CFD-software is studied on the statistical point of view, first performing statistical hypothesis tests, later calculating different correlation indices, linear and non-linear multivariate regressions and scenario analyses, with the use of open-source Python libraries and simple codes.
The tools proposed can be use also for other studies, helping engineer in an analytic analysis of the problem, very useful in particular for innovative design, where it is not possible to rely on experience and old results.
Fretting fatigue is the name given to the fatigue phenomena induced by the simultaneous presence of contact pressure and small relative displacements at the interface between adjacent bodies.
Fretting worsen the fatigue performance of engine components, thus a set of APDL has been written at Piaggio and included in a Workbench workflow to take into account that class of phenomena.
The first application was a conrod for a high performance Aprilia motorbike, which sported a very good fretting behavior.
Design of Centrifugal Pumps by CFD Simulations and Surrogate-Based Shape Optimization
Centrifugal pumps design and performance prediction is far from trivial due to the high number of free geometric parameters to be determined. CFD codes can be used to numerically predict the performance of a given design and to obtain detailed information on the 3D flow field in advance of experimental model tests. Nowadays, the availability of ever increasing computational resources makes the coupling of CFD and shape optimization algorithms a viable path toward an automatic, robust, and fast design strategy for turbomachinery. The aim of this study is to propose and validate a methodology for the robust and optimal automatic design of centrifugal pumps, based on CFD simulations and surrogate-based shape optimization using open-source software in high performance computing (HPC) environment.
Simulation results compression for efficient Results Data Management
Stelios Karapantazi, BETA CAE Systems
Dimitrios Krontsos, BETA CAE Systems
Automated post processes is very common nowadays. Simple scenarios include saving only specific results in post-processing software native databases whereas in more sophisticated cases a series of report data are stored in data management systems. New challenges arose this way relevant to the need to download the report data from a data server as quickly as possible, display and compare them in the best way allowing in the same time as much access to the original results data as possible.
This paper presents a solution in this field. The compression capabilities of post processor META native database, far exceed the conventional compression solutions reducing storage requirements and more importantly bringing database downloading times to affordable levels. The tool offers full control of the data accuracy stored and advanced parameterization per model/component/part and per result. Model simplification techniques produce 3d databases with a satisfactory draft display of the results field in sizes of one hundredth of the original ones.
Seismic safety Analysis of a base-isolated LNG tank
This paper reports about the seismic risk computation of a representative liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank isolated at its base level with two types of seismic isolation systems: Lead-Core Elastomeric Bearings and sliding bearings.The fragility analysis of the LNG tank is then performed by consolidated analytical and numerical tools. The seismic risk is finally computed by considering an hazard function related to a medium seismicity site with two different extended PDFs (truncated and not truncated).The problem is solved numerically by means of a detailed finite element model, taking into account fluid-structure interaction effects.The Finite Element Modeling (FEM) strategy which was used to simulate dynamic response of the liquid tank system was described and the FEM was validated using a set of manual calculation which is used in available design guidelines. The isolation systems are modeled as non-linear spring-dashpot elements with properties calculated on the basis of data obtained from the literature.The seismic excitation considered is an artificial accelerogram compatible with the Italian code provisions (NTC2018).Results concerning base shear force, sloshing vertical displacement and deflection of the container are presented. In order to measure the effectiveness of the isolation systems, percentage reductions of the peak response of all mentioned quantities are calculated using the non-isolated tank as reference.Finally, the reliability-oriented cost-benefit optimization for structural base isolation components in the so-called one-level approach was investigated. Acceptibly safe structures are determined by the LQI-approach (Life quality Index ). Optimization is performed from the public’s and the owner’s point of view.
Assessment of no-tension masonry-like structures using the Straus7 API
An energy-based approach is presented to perform the analysis of 2D and 3D no-tension masonry-like structures exploiting the API of the FEM software package Straus7. Masonry is replaced by a suitable equivalent orthotropic material with spatially varying elastic properties and negligible stiffness in case of cracking strain. A non-incremental algorithm is implemented to define the distribution and the orientation of the equivalent material, minimizing the potential energy so as to achieve a compression-only state of stress for any given compatible load. The proposed method captures collapse mechanisms predicted by limit analysis, without any a-priori hypothesis regarding the collapse mode. Applications are shown addressing vaulted masonry structures subjected to settlements and masonry walls with openings acted upon by dead loads and both in-plane and out-of-plane seismic loads. The Research Grant “Fondazione Cariplo 2017-0317” is gratefully acknowledged.
Generally speaking, cross passages associated with transportation tunnels, especially metro tunnels, are constructed to connect the two running-tunnels at prescribed intervals to meet safety requirements during service stage of the tunnels; and like the running tunnels themselves, the cross-passages are often located in difficult ground and under the groundwater table as well as in urban congested environment. Therefore, the design and construction of cross passage is usually a very challenging task. This paper presents a particular design and construction method devised by the authors to optimize the opening of cross passages, It is a flexible and yet practical solution, involving either ground improvement by means of jet-grouted columns executed from the ground surface, or by ground freezing executed from the running tunnels, or a combination of both techniques, depending on the access conditions, if a cross passage is to be built in a sand-dominant strata, or the dewatering technique executed from the already-excavated running tunnels if a cross passage is to be built in clayey soils . The main aims of ground improvement are to firstly create an impervious layer around the cross-passage to be built and to strengthen the mechanical properties of the surrounding ground. Such a solution is regarded as an optimization that can be readily applied in different types of soil conditions, even difficult ground conditions like the so-called mixed-face condition. Furthermore, the proposed method foresees the installation of temporary steel frames, called the “half-moon solution”, to ensure the stability of intersection between the cross passage and the running tunnel and to provide a safe work condition for the cutting of the segmental lining and opening of the cross passage. The application of the presented design-construction method is illustrated with a recent case history. For the verification of the stability and effectiveness of both the installed supports and ground surrounding a cross passage to be built by applying the proposed design-construction methodology, the commercial software Straus7 has been used. Specifically, a 3D model is developed by using Finite Elements 2D (plates) that simulate concrete segmental lining Finite Elements 3D (bricks) that simulate both upper and lower steel beams; elastic springs (compression only) for the interaction between soil and segmental lining, 1D beam elements for the steel columns and 3D brick elements for the concrete collar. Each element (be it made of concrete or steel) is defined in the calculation model with the physical and mechanical characteristics of materials used. As regards the interaction between the segmental rings, the connection has been simulated by means of dowel elements, which follows an elastic-plastic regime to model the connection behaviour. Further, the behaviour of these elements is also governed by both actual curves of shear force / displacement and pull-out force / displacements which are derived from the results of the laboratory tests provided by the supplier of the connecting dowels.The friction between the lining rings is simulated using point-contact elements.The interaction between segmental linings and concrete collar is simulated with rigid connection elements capable of transmitting only normal stress (without any shear component) and avoiding any interconnection.The 3D structural analysis, based on bedded spring beam model, is used to assess the membrane forces acting on both the temporary steel frame and the permanent RC collar. And, a 3D model is developed using plate-spring elements: this method involves the simplification of the liner soil-structure interaction. The stiffness of the ground reaction is based on a modulus of subgrade reaction (K), which can be calculated by different methods: for this analysis, the method of Galerkin (Bowles, 1982) is selected and used. The interaction between the segment and the upper and lower steel beams is modelled in Straus7 through "connection elements”, evenly distributed, able to transmit only axial and shear forces to the temporary steel frame. The entire shear force is then used for dimensioning such connections (bolts with epoxy resins or with similar characteristics). Here below is a list of the loads that can be considered in the modelling, where and when applicable:• ground loads (include all types of loads from ground and rock wedges);• water loads (considering max and min water table location);• train live loading;• equipment and superimposed loading for tunnel fit-out;• earthquake loading;• loads from interfacing structures like CP opening;• loads arising from redistribution of forces at openings;• lining self-weight;• fire load;• invert base slab;• future development loads;• creep loads;• accidental loads (machine hitting temporary structure);• blast load.During construction, before demolition of the segmental tunnel lining, a temporary steel frame should be set up at the junction of the CP with the running tunnel constructed usually by TBM. This temporary supporting steel frame provides the required stability of the junction zone on the re-distribution of the ground stress at the junction and safety on the work. This temporary steel structure should be of proper rigidity and stiffness in order to minimize ground deformation. The excavation of the cross passage shall start once the steel frame is set up. After this phase, the concrete collar shall be realized and, as soon as the concrete has hardened, the temporary steel structure will be removed. This construction sequence is followed step by step in the numerical modelling. A non-linear phase analysis is carried out to define the maximum stresses acting in the structural elements. Subsequently, the structural verification of the segmental lining, temporary steel structure (beams and columns), concrete collar and all the connecting elements (bolts and welding) are carried out. As demonstrated by the successful case history described in the paper, the proposed design-construction method is very effective and not difficult to implement. Furthermore, the experience also shows that in order to ensure a successful application of the proposed methods, it is essential to apply numerical modelling as well in-situ real time monitoring to check the design solution both prior to and during its implementation.
Use of the pushover method for the seismic analysis of mixed frame-wall structures
The study of the seismic behavior of buildings with a mixed frame-wall structure puts the designer in front of important conceptual problems, such as the verification of the connections between the different construction elements, as well as the distribution of horizontal actions among the resisting walls and the torsional deformability due to the eccentricity between center of stiffness and center of mass. The proposed solution consists in implementing the suite of calculation (Straus7) with an Add-on that executes non-linear static analysis (Pushover analysis) for reinforced concrete buildings, with the following features: • Calculation of non-linear reinforced concrete slabs and walls modeled with Plate/Shell elements according to the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) for slab elements and the Disturbed Stress Field Model (DSFM) for wall elements (models developed by Prof. Frank Vecchio, University of Toronto). • Possibility to perform non-linear analysis of mixed wall-frame structures, in which it is possible to combine, through the sub-modeling technique, the nonlinearity of Straus7 with the secant stiffness formulation of the smeared crack models implemented for walls and slab elements. • Possibility to perform multimodal pushover analysis, whose load distribution is continuously updated during the analysis, to reflect the progressive stiffness degradation of the structure. This solution offers both computational support in dealing with non-linear analyses of buildings, and a great versatility, integrating into the environment of a "general purpose" computer program such as Straus7. The report will illustrate in more detail the theoretical-practical aspects associated with the functionalities listed above, accompanied by examples of two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures.
One Single Model: a new parametric approach to Megastructures
Fabio Ceccato, Maffeis Engineering S.p.A.
Maffeis Engineering proposes an innovative approach for the design of Megastructures: One Single Model. This new and challenging approach allows designer, architects and engineers to work together, sharing information, data and a 3D model between different departments with a reduction in cost, time, effort and loss of data and information.
Advanced automated procedure for the fatigue characterization of welded steel joints
Fatigue is a common failure in steel structures with welded joints; these, being their weakest parts, require accurate analysis verification.In this work a tool is developed coupling the accuracy of finite elements hot-spot stress method with international standard prescriptions into an automated numerical procedure for the fatigue characterization of welded steel joints. The tool analyses all the potential fatigue crack locations and provides in output the fatigue endurance of the welded structure under the different loading conditions. Being the numerical procedure of general validity, it can be extended to any structural welded configuration simplifying the verification process. The innovative way of performing fatigue analysis allows to gain competitive advantage, increase design quality, reduce project lead time and optimize product cost.
Managing Critical Infrastructures with BIM: integrating the Analytical model
Mariarita De Rinaldis, University of Salento
Sandro Gori, EnginSoft SPA
Giorgio Zavarise, Polytechnic of Turin
Critical Infrastructures requires integrated management approaches, during their whole lifecycle, to achieve optimized strategies for users safety, structural damage prevention and sustainability. Some of the major challenges are disaster management issues, that need to be handled via a multidisciplinary approach, integrating civil and management engineering but also psychology. A numerical simulation model can, in fact, simulate occupants behaviour during an evacuation. BIM is a holistic approach, that has reached a good maturity level in design and construction phases, but its potentialities in lifecycle management are still unexpressed. The integration of numerical analysis is a weakness of the current standards and BIM software tools, due to interoperability issues and to the lack of knowledge sharing. This contribution explores current methodologies, benefits and weaknesses of the integration of numerical simulations into the complex context of critical infrastructures management.
Construction process and cracking analysis of a tunnel, sequential analysis and actions of the influence of a building over the tunnel. Design of the steel, reinforced and prestressed structures with CivilFEM.
Ronald Siat Caparros, Ingeciber S.A.
To analyze complex models from the Civil Engineering field such as Bridges, Dams, Skyscrapers, Nuclear Power Plants or any other major infrastructure, a dedicated software has to be used in order to have full post-processing capabilities and to orient powerful solvers like the ANSYS solver to the Civil Engineering field of activity. For presenting this advanced simulations for civil engineering, we propose the design and construction analysis of an urban highway tunnel and the influence of a building over the tunnel. This example will show the combination of a nonlinear analysis plus the postprocessing design by Codes and Standards of the steel, reinforced and prestressed structures. This tunnel design has been performed with the help of CivilFEM, developed by INGECIBER S.A.
Analysis and verification procedure for wooden panels structures by a general purpose FEM code
Gerardo Masiello, SMStrutture
The theme of the wooden structures, and in particular of the wood panel structures (cross-lam, platform, etc.) for their massive use for the realization of "green" structures, in both public (school, gymnasiums) and private buildings, has been increasingly relevant in the last few years. The paper aims to outline the path that leads to a correct modelling of this structural typology through the tools that FEM Straus7 code makes available. The various aspects of the design of wood panel structures will then be illustrated, which can be listed below: - Schematization of the structural problem: the wooden structure as a box element; - Aspects related to the ductility of the constructive system; design in the hierarchy of the resistances; choice of the behaviour factor; - Modelling of the wall panel and of the connections using the equivalent stiffness method; - modelling of floors and wall connections; - Verification of panels and connections. In the end, some tips will be provided for the automation of the modelling and verification processes through the use of the Straus7 API.
Comparison of Finite Volume and Lattice-Boltzmann Methods’ performance in simulating building wind loads
Eugen Riegel, Numeric Systems GmbH
Increasing importance of numerical simulations in civil engineering makes it crucial to obtain reliable wind load results on designed buildings. While steady state analysis allow to predict behavior of the system at fixed wind conditions, they fall short when predicting so important transient phenomena as effects of vortex shedding or squalls. While Finite Volume methods have provided results for transient simulations of such systems, the speed of calculation was always significantly low due to required fine time discretization. Regardless of utilization of parallel computing calculation of one or two wind passes through computational domain might have taken days or weeks. The answer to this performance problem comes in utilization of Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). In this paper we compare the computational performance of Lattice-Boltzmann Method to Finite Volume approach applied to a transient wind load analysis of a building design.
Explicit Lagrangian FEM for 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems
Cremonesi Massimiliano, Politecnico di Milano
Perego Umberto, Politecnico di Milano
This work presents a partitioned fully explicit and fully Lagrangian approach for the efficient simulation of 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction problems. An in-house explicit version of the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) is used for the fluid domain, while a standard commercial FEM (Simulia Abaqus/Explicit) is employed for the structural domain. All the advanced functionalities of Abaqus/Explicit can be included in the structural model (wide FE library, constitutive relations, contact interactions…). The structure-to-fluid coupling is enforced through the Gravouil and Combescure algorithm: it allows to obtain a strong coupling with arbitrarily large interface displacements using nonconforming space and time discretizations in the different domains. The coupled approach is particularly interesting because of the fully Lagrangian description, which is effective in the simulation of FSI problems with free surface flows and large structural displacements, and because of the fully explicit coupled solver which can be an efficient choice in large-scale engineering problems with fast dynamics and/or an high degree of non-linearity.
Fire behavior of self-supporting automated warehouses
Gian Paolo Chiarelli, Fincon Italia Consulting Srl
Samuele Sassi, FSC Engineering Srl
Carlo Andrea Castiglioni, Fincon Italia Consulting Srl
Paolo Pietro Setti, Politecnico di Milano
Self-supporting automated warehouses, used in industrial facilities to optimize storage spaces, is a goal of structural engineering, which combines the structural efficiency of metal construction with handling systems. The main construction feature is to produce thin, lightweight metal profiles, which allows a limitation of weight, cost and assembly time, but it makes them vulnerable to the action of fire due to loss of stability. Therefore, these metal profiles are also difficult to protect with the traditional passive fire protection systems because of their unfavourable critical section factors and critical collapse temperatures. National regulations and international standards for fire safety generally require a minimum fire resistance performance for structural elements and a verification of collapse procedures to prevent damage to adjacent structures. It is optional for the client to equip these warehouses with active fire protection systems (sprinkler etc.), in correspondence with the activity carried out. The presence of an active fire protection system inside the warehouse strongly limits any structural damage. In this article, two case studies are done for fire behaviour analysis of self-supporting automatic warehouses with presence and absence of active fire protection systems. After defining the possible fire scenarios, a series of fluid dynamic analyses are conducted with CFD models (by FDS software) to evaluate the dynamics of the fire and the temperatures on the structural elements. Then, the heat response of the structure is investigated through non-linear analyses with FEM models (by Straus7® software) for the evaluation of the possible collapse mechanisms of warehouse structure.
Influence of process parameters on thermal fatigue and die life in a HPDC process for aluminum alloys
Daniele Bianchi, Fonderie Mario Mazzucconi
Thermal fatigue is a critical phenomenon in High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC). Together with die soldering and erosion, it is one of the main causes of wear and damage on HPDC dies.
Thermal fatigue consists in the cyclical heating and cooling of the die surface, with results in repeated compression and tension stresses. This operating condition leads to different morphologies of die damage, such as hot checks and corner cracks. The number of shots a die can stand depends on the entity of the thermal fatigue.
The aim of this work is to analyse how process parameters such as thermoregulation, spraying and alloy temperature affect the thermal fatigue and the die life in a HPDC process for aluminum alloys.
The well-known software MAGMA5 can be used to compute the stresses on the die based on its temperature. Consequently, with MAGMA5 is possible to evaluate the thermal fatigue entity.
Hence, a test model has been designed and a series of stress simulation has been performed, varying the previously mentioned parameters. Furthermore, the add-on simulation option MAGMAdielifetime has been used to compute the lifetime of every point of the die. The result of this analysis is a correlation between the variation of the process parameters and the die life.
What is more, additional simulations have been performed on a real steering housing produced by Fonderie Mario Mazzucconi. These simulations reply different parameter sets actually used in different production lots with twin dies. The good matching between simulation results and real die wear is also shown in this work.
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation for the design and production of an automotive structural component with tilting gravity die casting process
Donato De Feudis, New Olef
Giampietro Scarpa, EnginSoft SpA
Lorenzo Trevisan, EnginSoft SpA
In Aluminum foundries, the use of CAE softwares, such as MAGMAsoft, has a crucial and essential role.
The paper shows how MAGMAsoft simulations are fundamental in the development of a structural automotive component in order to determine feeding and filling problems, mold thermal regime, cooling system effectiveness. Simulation can make a casting system optimal and improve the casting quality with less effort.
This paper reports on the application of MAGMAsoft to model the die filling of an automotive structural component using gravity casting technology; it is also described how the results shown by MAGMAsoft can be used to noticeably improve the mold design.
Finally, an interesting comparison is made between traditional and tilting gravity casting; differences, pros and cons are presented as well as the final choice made accordingly.
Filling dynamics with tangential gates using virtual analysis
Although the foundry process is rooted in ancient times, the research for innovative techniques for the production of high quality components has always had the utmost consideration. Optimizing and verifying the functionality of new shape of casting systems requires experience and use of virtual systems to confirm the choices taken.
The presentation shows the validation of different tangential gating system configurations thanks to the help of MAGMASOFT
Gating System Optimisation for the production of an aluminium engine head in gravity process
Giampietro Scarpa, EnginSoft SpA
The reduction of the costs and the time in the foundry processes are now fundamental and considered equal to the maximum quality of the component.
Therefore, the decision to streamline the production process by intervening on materials and on the yield is part of the fundamental optimization of the process.
The presentation shows the activity of virtual optimization carried out to identify the best geometrical configuration of gating system to obtain the highest quality of the component with the maximum yield
This full presentation is not available
Fonderia Corrà SpA
Predicting the final quality of cast iron parts through process simulation and optimization
Gabriele Rasia, Fonderia Corrà SpA
Franco Bonollo, University of Padova
Vincenzo De Ferrari, Fonderia Corrà SPA
Luca Serafin, Fonderia Corrà SPA
Prediction of defects in spheroidal graphite cast iron is a relevant issue, since quality of castings depends on a multitude of variables which should be properly controlled in order to make the production repeatable. Some main variables, such as chemical composition, inoculation yield, thermal conditions, characteristics of cores and green sand significantly affect final quality. This work has been focused on porosity formation tendency in castings manufactured with different process conditions, by also comparing the results obtained through software simulation to real ones of foundry. Castings and samples have been analysed by visual inspection, ultrasound and tensile tests, and by taking some micrographs. Process simulation and optimization through MAGMAsoft have been carried out, by improving production efficiency and effectiveness with reduced costs and times for sampling.
Franco Bonollo, Padova University, Dept. of Engineering and Management (DTG)
Fabrizio Greggio, EnginSoft SpA
The competitiveness of foundry sector is driven by innovation oriented to quality and production efficiency. The deeper knowledge of foundry process supports the introduction of optimal solutions to high quality products as requested from all different markets in a global competition. The ability to manage all the stages of foundry production, based on advanced monitoring and cognitive platform, is fundamental to react in real-time with positive impact in terms of energy, environmental and cost.
The digital transformation is essential for innovative foundry (Fig. 1) in agreement with Industry 4.0 paradigm and the application of enabling technologies similarly to previous robotic and automation in assembly. The maturity, transversal usability and fast evolution of ICT technologies is accelerating the application of CPS, IoT and Artificial Intelligence (AI) I in the existing foundry plants or in new production sites. The foundry and metallurgy sector start his digital revolution introducing the advanced process simulation tools in the design and engineering departments of the supply chain. All equipment and process are well design and optimized by casting process simulation.
Padova University, Dept. of Engineering and Management (DTG)
20 Years of Research Projects targeted to Zero Defect Manufacturing in Diecasting
Nicola Gramegna, EnginSoft SpA
Lars Arnberg, Trondheim University, NTNU
Metal manufacturing is a relevant part of whole GDP of industry sector in Europe. In particular, the field of non-ferrous foundry, led by Aluminium casting technology, is constituted by about 2700 European companies, with more than 4 million tons of castings produced in 2016. The last survey carried out by CAEF individuates Germany and Italy as producers of 60% of Aluminium alloys castings in Europe.
The key-process, in this field, is High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC), which had an enormous evolution in last 20 years, and is facing relevant challenges in next years. One of the main driving forces for this evolution has been the effort for achieving the Zero Defect Manufacturing (ZDM) target.
Various R&D projects strongly contributed to generate innovation, thanks to well-balanced public-private funding. This paper reviews the most relevant EU-funded research and education projects carried out in the field in the last 20 years, showing the approach that created the best synergy among all strategic elements needed for an intelligent, efficient and innovative Aluminium foundry.
Finite element analysis of a thermoplastic chevron packing
Marco Luigi Milani, Petrolvalves SPA
Simona Macchi, Petrolvalves SPA
Roberto Bolzonella Petrolvalves SPA
Paolo Maggioni, Petrolvalves SPA
In the gasket field one kind of seal commonly used is chevron packing, which is a V-shaped seal utilized on dynamic and static seal. The chevron is composed of thermoplastic rings which are characterized by a strongly non-linear stress-strain curve with a different behavior in tension and compression. Due to these mechanical properties, the material characterization has been necessary to simulate the behavior in the stress analysis. The mechanical solver has been used to run the analysis and the results have been compared with workshop test.
PASS/HYDROSYSTEM - new opportunities of multiphase flow simulation in piping networks
Leonid Korelstein, Truboprovod
The paper presents the new features which are included recently in PASS/HYDROSYSTEM piping flow analysis software, and allow to calculate 3-phase (water/oil/gas) flow in piping networks. The improved features of gas/liquid flow analysis are also described
Particle Multiphysics Simulation for the Oil & Gas Industry Using Rocky DEM and ANSYS
Oil & Gas industry is often associated exclusively with the production, processing and transportation of one or multiple fluids. However, in several scenarios, particulate material is also present, with or without such fluids, and can plays a key role on the overall operation performance. If such particulate material is ignored in simulations of cases like wearing on pipes, transport and agglomeration of hydrates, accumulation of particles on transportation lines, catalyzers and filters, the analysis from such results might lead to incorrect engineering decisions.
In order to encompass a comprehensive analysis of such scenarios, this presentation will demonstrate the use of Rocky DEM coupled with ANSYS Mechanical, Fluent and SpaceClaim, as a fundamental first-principal tool to accurately optimize the design of equipment and processes from the Oil & Gas Industry involving particulate material.
Rocky DEM is a powerful, 3D Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) software that quickly and accurately predicts the particle dynamics behavior. Several capabilities set Rocky apart from other DEM codes, including its multiGPU processing capabilities, truly non-round particle shapes using polyhedral representation, particle breakage and wear modeling. Rocky DEM is fully integrated with ANSYS Mechanical and Fluent within the Workbench environment, providing engineers the ability to perform multiphysics simulations that includes, particle dynamics, structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics. With a pervasive parametric support inside of Rocky and its deep integration with ANSYS, the results from particle dynamics are accurately and automatically transferred as boundary and field condition to ANSYS, allowing for further parameterization of the design in SpaceClaim and complete multiphysics optimization using DesignXplorer or optisLang
This full presentation is not available
CFD simulation of multiphase flow with solid particles through a ball valve for de-cocking service
Marco Luigi Milani, Petrolvalves SPA
Simona Macchi, Petrolvalves SPA
Roberto Bolzonella Petrolvalves SPA
In de-cocking processes, the presence of solid particles of coke in the process fluid is usually a critical aspect for process valves , due to its tendency to sediment and harden on internal surfaces of the valve causing an increment of the break torque and a reduction of the valve service life. To avoid this, the valve cavity is purged from sedimented coke by injecting steam through purge ports in the valve cavity. CFD analysis is used to simulate multiphase flow with solid coke particles through a ball valve to predict coke sedimentation areas and to optimize purging ports design for steam injection.
The GASVESSEL Project, financed by the EU under H2020 and including 13 partners among naval manufacturing companies and research centers, aims to prove the techno-economic feasibility of a new CNG (Compressed natural gas) transport concept, enabled by a novel patented Pressure Vessel manufacturing technology and a new conceptual ship design including safe on- and off-loading solution.
In this paper the scope of the project and the first results obtained by the partners will be presented. In particular, modeFRONTIER is used to optimize the delivery of gas from the identified source locations to the target markets in different scenarios and geographical areas, providing to any project partner through the web-based collaboration platform VOLTA, indications such as optimal ship size, ship speed and fleet size in order to reach the lowest gas transport costs per unit volume.
In addition, modeFRONTIER is also used to optimize the Pressure Vessel size for the winding process, by considering dimensional and technological variables, including optimal cap geometry, weight, thickness of the liner, amount of the reinforcing fibers and plies stacking angles.
Design for Additive Manufacturing in Hydraulics applications: A new technical mindset to innovative Fluid Power systems
Nicola Gramegna, EnginSoft SpA
Additive Manufacturing can give many advantages to a complex hydraulic systems, such as lightweight, customization, compactness, increase efficiency. The design of hydraulic components is critical when it comes to new technology as 3D printing and it requires simulations, tests and thinking out of the box. The speaker Alberto Tacconelli, Aidro Hydraulics & 3D Printing Managing Director, will show how the hydraulic system can benefit from additive manufacturing and the need of a new design approach for hydraulic manifolds.
Machine Learning for the speed prediction of subsea trenching activities
Paolo Vielmo, SAIPEM
Gloria Lorenzetti, M3E
Diego Lazzarin, SAIPEM
This work presents a Machine Learning model that has been developed in order to forecast the speed of subsea trenching operations, the most important parameter to predict the costs of such activities.
In particular, the project focused on developing data-driven models, based on data acquired during the trenching campaign conducted with a plough in the Mediterranean sea at Zohr field. Data were provided by both geotechnical surveys and by plough/support vessel monitoring system.
After pre-processing the data, several Machine Learning models have been developed, considering separately frictional and cohesive soils. Each model has been validated by means of cross-validation techniques.
Finally, a comparison between data-driven and analytical model has been conducted, to gain sensibility on the predicted speed by the two different approaches.
The project demonstrated that a Machine Learning approach can be effective to predict the trenching speed. Authors envisage that models can be further developed to increase their performance outside the training set, and that they can be easily adapted to different processes.
The experience of usage of modern derivative-free optimization methods (BOBYQA and POUNDERS) in PASS/HYDROSYSTEM piping flow network analysis software is discussed on the examples of optimal parameters selection of piping networks
Several aspects have to be taken into account on Industry 4.0, beside mechatronics, the development of big data management and flexible automation. Aim of this presentation is to emphasize the technical-productive challenges of metal deformation and the need to explore new methodologies and formulate new concepts, the metallurgical process can rely on. MASPERO TECH studies the feasibility, provides the realization and engineering of the production processes of hot forging of non-ferrous alloys and hydroforming of Fonderia Maspero srl, in particular for railway and aeronautic sectors. The high-speed railway sector is increasingly approaching the use of light alloys for structural parts, and closed die hot forging is, together with the extrusion of profiles, the most coherent technology to simultaneously achieve lightweight components, mechanical characteristics comparable with steel parts and reliability of components over time. The design and development of a new engine support for high speed train is presented in this work. The development of the manufacturing process with FORGE® describes how a CAE approach can help the designer to quickly define the feasibility of the individual components and to correct the most critical aspects of the project with regard to hot-forging technology, proposing solutions able to keep the costs of production down.
Numerical simulation in steelmaking industry: from melted metal to finished product
Laetitia Pégié, Transvalor SA
Increasing requirements concerning the product quality led to the mandatory integration of CAE technologies on steelmaking industry. They are used to study the effect of process parameters on defect formation or evolution. These numerical tools, more and more powerful and accurate, are today a deciding and validating factor used to improve ingot and continuous casting. Several specific features have been added in recent years to investigate further aspects of the process. Moreover, innovative steady-state approach concerning the rolling of long product has been implemented for a faster evaluation and optimization of rolling processes. Based on Transvalor collaboration with major steelmaking worldwide players, THERCAST® and FORGE® application cases are presented, focusing on optimization of casting processes as well as integration between melt shop and rolling/forging department.
Simulation of soft reduction in billet caster; impact on the product
To one of their customer, Danieli proposed a revamping of the caster including Soft Reduction modules. The idea was to model the casting machine with Thercast® and to show the benefits of the Soft Reduction modules.
The simulation of the soft reduction was performed by using two new developments of Thercast®. First, the possibility to perform a global calculation by slice was used. To model the soft reduction, a new release of the solver was used. It automatically recalculates the position of the pinch rolls considering the local shrinkage and the soft reduction.
The results of the computation show the impact of the soft reduction on the solidification end and the mushy zone and also on the mechanical aspect.
This full presentation is not available
Key to Metals
The usage and integration of material data in the metal working industry
Mariagrazia Vottari, Key to Metals
The paper will provide an insight into use cases of material selection in CAE simulation and other engineering activities in the metal working industry, from primary material producers downstream to forging, forming and component manufacturing. The information and functionalities of interest in these diversified processes include mechanical and physical properties for a wide range of temperatures for cold, warm and hot operations, formability properties for bulk and sheet materials, selection tools for optimizing materials selection, material replacement and interchangeability, as well as positive material identification and reverse engineering. As opposed to some other industries, instead of integration of the supply chain, the focus of the metal working industry is more on internal processes and the integration of material dataflow with internal systems, such as ERP, CAM and specialized systems for Quality Assurance, sampling, calculating welding regimes etc.
A novel SLM H13 cooling insert for extrusion dies: experimental and numerical investigations
Barbara Reggiani, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Lorenzo Donati, University of Bologna
The additive manufacturing technology (AM) is considered to be the forth-industrial revolution allowing to produce «near net» components almost without geometrical constraints. This made the process perfectly fits with the requirement of extrusion dies since usually, a maximum of two dies are required and the lack of design constraints allows to easily producing inserts with variable internal cooling channels. In the present work, a multi-die is proposed in which the expensive AM part, the insert with conformal cooling channels, is integrated into a conventional machined steel housing. Two AM inserts have been manufactured with SLM technology with different cooling channels diameters. Complex Finite Element (FE) simulations of the extrusion process have been performed by means of different FE codes in order to properly predict the thermal field gradient, the die stresses under the process thermomechanical loads and the multistate fluid dynamics.
CAE approach to cold forming processes: an efficient and cost-effective solution for product-process development
In metal deformation industry, CAE tools are widely used to evaluate the preliminary feasibility of new products and to reduce/eliminate defects on the final parts. Less efforts are usually performed to optimize the process in terms of productivity and die life. Furthermore, effective co-design of the parts can lead to better in-service behavior of the cold formed parts, as well as to easier and faster production processes. Aim of this presentation is to propose a seamless approach to the cold forming industry. Several real-life experiences including cold forming for fasteners industry, coining, mechanical joining, blanking and many others processes are presented. Implementation costs of this approach are marginal on the total development costs of the parts, as demonstrated by many industries. SMEs and big companies daily use it with excellent advantages in improving the quality of components and processes, offering efficient co-design to its customers. This methodology demonstrates how product design and production development could be significantly technically and economically improved by using the right technologies, with the right know-how, at the right time.
This full presentation is not available
OMFA Inox Srl
Simulating hot forging processes: moving from practical experience into new markets
Since its inception, the forging process could only be mastered by means of its operator’s know-how due to its intrinsic difficulties. A trial-and-error approach -- with all its related drawbacks -- was the only way to measure the feasibility of a hot-forging process. In recent years, however, the development of specific finite element method (FEM) codes to simulate these kinds of manufacturing processes led to the wider sharing of knowledge, the extension of forging capabilities, and the optimization of existing processes.
In 2018, two years since the beginning of the introduction of FEM code to its production development workflow, OMFA Inox has decided to publish the main benefits it gained from these decisions.
Main benefits of a global numerical approach on metal forming processes
Industry must demonstrate the ability to develop, process and join increasingly diverse and complex materials. Furthermore, industry is required to work across several manufacturing steps, from material selection to in-service properties, through the design and development of forming heat treatment and assembly processes. In this context, the use of numerical simulation of metal forming processes has become an increasingly reliable tool in seeking this goal. Beside the traditional hot and cold forming processes, technologies such as electrical upsetting, induction hardening, thermo-chemical processes have to be evaluated via numerical simulations. The presentation aims at showing several applications focused on the benefits of FORGE® and COLDFORM® to improve the quality of products and processes.
University of Genoa, Mechanical Engineering, DIME department
Development of an integrated design platform for general turbomachinery application
Dario Bruna, University of Genoa, Mechanical Engineering, DIME department
The current work covers the development and application of a state of the art tools-set for the design and analysis of a generic turbomachinery component.
The software suite includes 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D tools, a geometry modeler and procedures for parametric analysis.
In house, commercial and open source codes are integrated to allow the user multiple choices for the work-stream definition.
This platform is addressed to different users for:
- optimized or new products development
- technology transfer of advanced turbomachinery concept
- R&D activities
- educational purposes
Example applications are presented to show capabilities and flexibility of the procedure.
SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
Design Optimisation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for a Laboratory Scale AA – CAES
Simone Zavattoni, SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
Davide Montorfano, SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
Maurizio C. Barbato, SUPSI - Department of Innovative Technologies (DTI)
In the context of electric energy management, Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA – CAES) plants are a viable alternative to pumped hydro plants in terms of power and storage capacity. Excess of electricity is used to run a compressors train; after compression, the hot air obtained is cooled down, storing the thermal energy in a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. The high-pressure low-temperature air is then stored into a reservoir (e.g. an underground salt cavern). When electricity is requested, air is extracted from the cavern, heated up recovering thermal energy from the TES and expanded into a turbine-generator unit.
In order to study experimentally the dynamic behaviour of such systems, a laboratory scale AA – CAES was conceived. Due to the high-pressure operation, the TES was engineered following the ASME pressure vessel design rules and a FEM analysis was exploited to assess its structural behaviour. Transient CFD simulations of the TES nominal operation cycle were also integrated in the structural analysis to account for non-uniform temperature distribution. This work presents the TES final design obtained with FEM-CFD synergetic design optimization.
CFD analysis of the flow distribution in a Waste Heat Recovery Unit
Thomas Odry, Brembana & Rolle
Marco Rottoli, Brembana & Rolle
Waste Heat Recovery Units (WHRU) are heat transfer equipment used to exploit heat from a high temperature gas stream by heating a heat transfer fluid. WHRUs are often used to exploit heat from a gas turbine exhaust gas stream. Thermal oil can be used as a heat transfer fluid. The gas flow entering the unit is rarely uniform, because of the swirl impressed by the gas turbine and the shape of the WHRU inlet section. The non-uniformity of the gas flow has to be properly analyzed, since it can lead to severe maldistribution and overstress the first tube row, causing damages in the long-term. The use of flow correction devices (perforated plates, guide vanes) can mitigate this issue. This work describes a numerical analysis of a vertical gas path WHRU. The simulation was performed using ANSYS Workbench environment. The solver CFX was used to run the simulation. The influence of inlet ducting shape and swirl flow at the gas turbine discharge section has been investigated in terms of uniformity of the flow velocity approaching the coil section. The necessity of flow correction devices has been also discussed.
Among the main advantages that sCO2 thermodynamic cycles can provide in power generation applications, the dramatic machinery size reduction, along with the possibility to achieve very good efficiencies with a wide range of thermal power sources, are probably the most outstanding.
The ways to enhance the cycle efficiency are essentially: leveraging on the real gas effect in the fluid compression, increase thermodynamic cycle complexity in order to reduce irreversibilities in thermal power transfers and increase the maximum cycle temperature.
It’s difficult to foresee when sCO2 power cycles will enter commercial operation, but it’ s almost sure that in the blend of the efficiency drivers to be chosen to hit market performance expectations, real gas effects can play an important role, as well as the possibility to realize industrial scale machinery with high efficiency and good reliability with respect to current state of the art, nevertheless the very high reduction in diameters and increase in rotational speed at comparable power levels. For this reason, the optimization of turbomachinery shall be seen as a whole with thermodynamic cycle one.
According these principles, the turbomachinery design for a non condensing, recompressed and intercooled sCO2 cycle, is presented.
Numerical Simulation of Replacement Sequencing of Pipe Components
François Billon, Onet Technologies
Edy Capuano, EnginSoft
Valerio Caputo, EnginSoft
The aging of components of fluid system piping of nuclear power plants requires their replacement by new components. These replacements are done on the sites in operations and in so-called "as built" configuration, which requires sometimes complex replacement sequencing. The numerical simulation of this sequencing is intended to calculate the forces induced during the various installation phases and efforts after final configuration to comply with the mechanical integrity criteria of the components.
The following presentation relates to a test case of replacement of an elbow between two straight sections of piping.
Physics Based Simulation Applications in the Semiconductor Industry
Metin Ozen, Ozen Engineering, Inc.
The semiconductor equipment industry supplies tools used to make semiconductors. These tools are process chambers where semiconductors are fabricated under vacuum controlled, temperature controlled, and chemical gas controlled conditions. CFD modeling has proven to be an essential part of chamber design, and advanced simulation capabilities enable engineers to prepare accurate predictive models. Particle physics capabilities track particles that enter semiconductor tools from fluid intake, machined parts, lubricants, or other sources. Porous media capabilities model highly-detailed geometry, like filters and grates using simplified geometry with representative behavior. Chemical species capabilities model concentration distribution of process chemicals within semiconductor equipment and are used to identify or prevent sources of contamination. Virtual reality collaboration enables local and remote stakeholders to interact with complex 3D results data in an immersive environment.
Sensor networks for monitoring and predictive maintenance applications of productive plants
The costs of monitoring and maintenance activities represent between 15% and 60% of the cost of the produced goods.
In this context, even small improvement, for higher efficiency in the related processes, affects the profitability of the plant in the short and medium term.
The primary cause of ineffectiveness in the management of these activities is the lack of field data.
The physical measurements can be acquired through a Wireless Sensor Network that provides the interface with software tool implemented on a web-server for data analysis, making the monitoring system among the most tangible IIoT and Industry 4.0 applications.
The consistent and automated acquisition of the measurements allows for generating the outputs to put into practice a predictive maintenance strategy.
In the document foreseen for submission, the main topics and characteristics of a vertical system for the aforementioned applications will be outlined.
Anomaly detection and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation methods in predictive maintenance
RUL estimation is of particular interest for companies wishing to optimize assets maintenance schedules. In this work we present a method for the analysis of time series relative to two different datasets: in the first case the data come from measurements acquired by sensors from a rotor, while the second one refers to the behavior of a set of machines of the same type over time. The purpose of this work is to predict the status of each machine and its components and identify the anomalies that occur. Associated with the status of each component is the estimation of the remaining useful life that provides information on the time-to-failure. The presented approach is based on data mining and machine learning techniques.
Edge computing on CLOUD architecture: how to make your products smarter by shifting from the big to the small data paradigm
Edge computing is becoming more and more successful as an effective architecture solution to leverage distributed computing capability in the field. Manufacturers may take advantage from it for making their products smarter, by adopting an IoT-by-design approach in order to offer the end user customers a suite of digital services fully integrated with their products. A mix of INDUSTRY 4.0 enabling technologies are suitable for proximity and remote services, as long as computational and communication resources are available at the edge. The presentation highlights some projects' results where products of manufacturing have been enhanced by applying Edge computing proximity services coupled with remote CLOUD services.
Solid modelling and hex meshing combined to form a new CAD and CAE standard
FEA and CFD are relegated far too late in the design process.. AIES Ltd patented SystemDeveloper methodology addresses this issue by creating solid models fused with Hexahedra mesh. Part of the modelling process automatically generates geometric parameters. AIES’s interface tribology solvers can be used to join objects to form machine assemblies for system analyses. Application of mesh control and boundary conditions is often difficult to maintain, in the current CAD/FEA design process, due to loss of identity of the boundary representation entities regenerated at each geometry change. SystemDeveloper uses Finite Objects and application of boundary conditions to interface surfaces keep the geometry and analysis model changes in step. The designer or analyst can change the model using the geometric parameters and automatically access the design. Thus capturing a company’s design knowledge is important and means that this method is used as a Knowledge Based System that maintains the design process quality. Examples show how SystemDeveloper is used and demonstrates its relevance to solving the current CAD/FEA design management issues. This approach to CAD and CAE means that a new standard method has just been developed which lends itself to automation and eliminates complex file transfer issues.
Perception of usability, efficiency and ergonomic risks of industrial workplaces using motion capture and virtual verification.
To ensure that your employees are in top condition and that they can perform their daily tasks without any negative eﬀect, it is crucial to understand the way they operate. How they perform speciﬁc tasks and what risks they may encounter during them. Once all these risks are identiﬁed, one can take actions to make sure they are kept on a minimum level. This can be achieved by introducing alternative solutions that are less demanding for the employee or replaces their eﬀort with automation.
ViveLab Ergo is a cloud-based ergonomic lab, software as a service with 7 built-in ergonomic analysis method and an anthropometric databank. To simulate, analyze and improve the interactions between human, machine and the work environment is more precisely, faster and easier than ever before. The virtual analysis of workstations is also possible yet in the design phase without building a physical prototype.
Thanks to these features, ViveLab Ergo is unique on the market in the field of ergonomic simulation. We would like to share some case studies to introduce the benefits of virtual verification.
Simulation tools Importance in Additive Manufacturing Process(SLM)
Paolo Bosetti, University of Trento, Industrial Engineering
Franck V. Djiague Keubou University of Trento, Industrial Engineering
Simulations tools have always been ebbedded into the product design lifecycle of conventionals technology and lately they have become ore and more relevant in new technology such as Additive Manufacturing. We focus our analysis in Selective laser melting (SLM), an additive manufacturing process in which multiple, successive layers of metal powders are heated via laser in order to build a part. Modeling for SLM requires consideration of the complex interaction between heat transfer and solid mechanics, that could result in the major cases in part failure due to stress residuals stress and distortions, and therefore excevive trail and major cost for the company.That bring us to the importance of using AM software able to predict and identify failures , improve quality (in terms of geometry and mechanical properties) and increasing efﬁciency (in terms of support optimizing strategy), in oder to reduce the production costs and speed up the time to market. In following we’ll focus our attention two cases studies, one related to failures detection on a Titanium prosthetics part and the other one related to distortions prediction and geometry compensation on a FSAE steering support component.